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Becket, Frederick Mark (11 January 1875–01 December 1942), industrial electrometallurgist, was born in Montreal, Canada, the son of Robert Anderson Becket, a businessman, and Anne Wilson. Becket attended McGill University, graduating in 1895 with a degree in electrical engineering. Intending initially to follow a career in the electrical industry, he went to work for Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Co. in East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania....

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Campbell, William (24 June 1876–16 December 1936), metallurgist, was born in Gateshead-on-Tyne, England, the son of Thomas Campbell and his American-born wife, Franciska Albrecht, occupations unknown. Campbell’s extensive formal schooling began at the Civil Service Department of King’s College in London in 1892, followed by two years at St. Kenelm’s College, Oxford. He then entered Durham University College of Science, where he completed an associate of science degree in 1896 and his bachelor’s degree in 1898. From 1899 to 1901 he was the 1851 Royal Exhibition research scholar at the Royal School of Mines in London. There he worked with Sir William Chandler Roberts-Austen who, along with other pioneer metallurgists, was still developing the field’s basic scientific tools and proving their value to manufacturers in the form of improved products and processes. It was an exciting time to enter the field....

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Grant, James Benton (02 January 1848–01 November 1911), metallurgist and governor of Colorado, was born in Russell County, Alabama, the son of Thomas McDonough Grant, a physician and owner of a plantation on the Chattahoochee River, and Mary Jane Benton. Both of his parents were natives of Halifax County, North Carolina. Grant’s grandfather was a member of the Highland clan of Grants who, after having fought in the Battle of Culloden, were transported as rebellious subjects to North Carolina in 1746. Grant’s father Thomas, after receiving an education in medicine in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Charleston, South Carolina, migrated to Alabama to practice medicine and farm. Meanwhile, Grant’s uncle, James Grant, who would play an important role in his life, migrated to frontier Chicago, Illinois, where he began practicing law in 1833....

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Haynes, Elwood (14 October 1857–13 April 1925), inventor, metallurgist, and automobile manufacturer, was born in Portland, Indiana, the son of Jacob March Haynes, a judge and banker, and Hilinda Sophia Haines. Haynes graduated from the Worcester County Free Institute of Industrial Science (now Worcester Polytechnic Institute), Worcester, Massachusetts, in 1881 with a B.S. in chemistry. He returned to Portland and taught in the local public schools. To further his knowledge of chemistry, he began in 1884 a year of study at the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland. His efforts to secure a fellowship that would enable him to complete a graduate degree were unsuccessful, forcing him to resume teaching in the Portland schools in 1885. In 1887 he married Bertha Lanterman; they had two children....

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Holley, Alexander Lyman (20 July 1832–29 January 1882), technical writer and consulting metallurgical engineer, was born in Lakeville, Connecticut, the son of Alexander Hamilton Holley, a manufacturer of cutlery and, later, governor of the state, and Jane Lyman. Holley’s mother died within two months of his birth, and three years later his father married Maria Coffing. Holley’s parents created a family environment that stressed hard work and religious piety. At a very early age, Holley displayed a distinct talent for things mechanical and for technical drawing. By eleven he was suggesting useful improvements for his father’s cutlery machines and before entering college had published an essay on cutlery manufacturing in Henry Varnum Poor’s ...

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Howe, Henry Marion (02 March 1848–14 May 1922), metallurgist, was born in Boston, Massachusetts, the son of Samuel Gridley Howe, a physician, historian of the Greek revolution, and founder of the Perkins Institution for the Blind, and Julia Ward Howe, a poet best known for her composition of the lyrics of “The Battle Hymn of the Republic.” Like many children of Boston’s elite, Howe received a classical education and attended Harvard College, where he took a bachelor’s degree in 1869. Less typical was his decision to follow up on these studies by enrolling in a small technological institute that had recently opened in Boston, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he completed a second bachelor’s degree, in geology and mining engineering. After graduating in 1871, Howe traveled to Troy, New York, site of one of the first Bessemer steelworks in the United States, apparently to obtain the experience with equipment and workers that no school could offer. Thus initiated, Howe entered a field that was in the midst of an unprecedented boom. Despite his youth and modest experience, he quickly found employment as a plant superintendent, first for the Joliet Iron and Steel Company and then for the Blair Iron & Steel Works of Pittsburgh. Confident that he had found a career, Howe married Fannie Gay of Troy in 1874 and took his bride on an extended European tour. The couple had no children....

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Hunt, Alfred Ephraim (31 March 1855–26 April 1899), metallurgist, inventor, and businessman, was born in East Douglass, Massachusetts, the son of Leander Batchelor Hunt, an iron manufacturer and inventor, and Mary Hannah Hanchett Hunt, a leader in the temperance movement. Hunt’s family moved to the Boston suburb of Hyde Park by his twelfth birthday. He filled his free moments accumulating and classifying a collection of butterflies, birds’ eggs, and postage stamps....

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Hunt, Robert Woolston (09 December 1838–11 July 1923), metallurgist and consulting engineer, was born in Fallsington, Pennsylvania, the son of Robert A. Hunt and Martha Lancaster. Hunt’s father, a retired doctor, had opened a drugstore in Covington, Kentucky, but he died when Hunt was seventeen, leaving the boy unable to afford further formal education. Robert ran his father’s business for two years but in 1857 moved to Pottsville, Pennsylvania, where he began working at John Burnish & Company, an iron rolling mill in which his cousin was a partner. Here Hunt was exposed to the practicalities of the iron industry as a puddler and roller. Following a course in analytical chemistry at the laboratory of Booth, Garrett & Reese in Philadelphia, Hunt found employment as a chemist in 1860 with the Cambria Iron Company in Johnstown, Pennsylvania, where he established the first analytical chemical laboratory as an integral component of an American ironworks....

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Charles W. Carey Jr.

Jeffries, Zay (22 April 1888–21 May 1965), metallurgist, was born in Willow Lake, Dakota Territory, the son of Johnston Jeffries and Florence Sutton, farmers. In 1890 he moved with his family to Fort Pierre, South Dakota. He received his B.S. in mining engineering from the South Dakota School of Mines in 1910. He worked briefly as an ore analyzer and mine superintendent before accepting a position as an instructor of metallurgy and ore dressing at the Case School of Applied Science in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1911. That same year he married Frances Schrader, with whom he had two children....

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Kinzel, Augustus Braun (26 July 1900–23 October 1987), metallurgist and research director, was born in New York City, the son of Otto Kinzel, a professional pianist, and Josephine Braun, a college teacher of mathematics. In 1919 Kinzel, who was known as “Gus,” received an A.B. cum laude in mathematics from Columbia University. As a youth he had become fluent in German and French, acquired a love for history and literature, and learned to play the piano. He once said, “Early in my career I learned two behavioral guides. First, choose a field of endeavor that you enjoy. If you enjoy your work you will be successful. Second, any transaction must benefit all parties therein. Otherwise, it just isn’t worthwhile” ( ...

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Landis, Walter Savage (05 July 1881–15 September 1944), metallurgical chemist, was born in Pottstown, Pennsylvania, the son of Daniel Landis and Clara Savage. Landis graduated from Lehigh University in 1902 with a degree in metallurgical engineering and then joined the Lehigh Metallurgy Department’s staff as an assistant. In this position he was able to pursue graduate study and in 1906 received a master of science degree. During 1905 and 1906 he traveled abroad to Heidelberg, Germany, to study crystallography and mineralogy, and in 1909 he also worked at the Krupp Institute in Aachen....

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Merica, Paul Dyer (17 March 1889–20 October 1957), metallurgist, was born in Warsaw, Indiana, the son of Charles Oliver Merica, a lecturer, and Alice White. Merica attended public schools in Warsaw and then went to DePauw University in Greencastle, Indiana, for three years, where he concentrated on chemistry. In 1907 he enrolled in the University of Wisconsin in Madison and received his A.B. the following year, majoring in physics under professor ...

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Richards, Joseph William (28 July 1864–12 October 1921), metallurgist and university professor, was born in Oldbury, Worcestershire, England, the son of Joseph Richards, a manufacturing metallurgical chemist, and Bridget Harvey. When he was approximately seven years old, Richards moved with his family to Philadelphia, where his father subsequently owned and operated a scrap metal recovery and evaluation facility. He was an excellent student and graduated from Lehigh University in 1886 with an analytical chemist degree. He then returned to his father’s Delaware Metal Refinery in Philadelphia, where he served as superintendent for approximately a year. In 1877 Richards married his second cousin Arnamarie Gadd; they had three children....

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Sauveur, Albert (21 June 1863–26 January 1939), metallurgist and university professor, was born in Louvain, Belgium, the son of Lambert Sauveur and Hortense Franquin. His father was a professor of Latin and Greek at the University of Louvain and authored several books. His parents immigrated to the United States in the 1880s, but Albert joined them only after completing his studies at Athénée Royale in Belgium and the École des Mines in Liege (1881–1886). He then enrolled as an advanced student at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, wrote a thesis on copper smelting, and graduated in 1889 with a degree in mining and metallurgy. In 1891 he married Mary Prince Jones of Spencer, Massachusetts; they had three children....

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Wills, Childe Harold (01 June 1878–30 December 1940), metallurgist and automobile designer and manufacturer, was born in Fort Wayne, Indiana, the son of John Carnegie Wills, a railroad mechanic, and Angelina Swindell. Wills’s mother named the boy after the hero of Lord Byron’s epic poem ...