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Bridgman, Percy Williams (21 April 1882–20 August 1961), physicist and philosopher of science, was born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, the son of Raymond Landon Bridgman, an author and journalist, and Mary Ann Maria Williams. As a boy, Bridgman was shy but independent and competitive. He participated in track and field sports, played chess, and studied the piano. Although his family was deeply religious (Congregational), the young Bridgman, to the great disappointment of his father, rejected religion as being factually unverifiable. Raymond Bridgman later came to accept his son’s commitment to honesty and intellectual integrity as a moral equivalent to religion. A good student, Percy Bridgman attended the public schools of Newton, Massachusetts, and upon graduation in 1900 entered Harvard College, earning an A.B. summa cum laude in 1904. He remained at Harvard to study physics, receiving an A.M. in 1905 and a Ph.D. in 1908, and was subsequently appointed research fellow in the Department of Physics. He became instructor in 1910. In 1912 he married Olive Ware, of Hartford, Connecticut, daughter of Edmund Asa Ware, founder and first president of Atlanta University. The couple had two children. Bridgman was made assistant professor in 1913, full professor in 1919, Hollis Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy in 1926, Higgins University Professor in 1950, and professor emeritus in 1954....

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Frank, Philipp G. (20 March 1884–21 July 1966), scholar of physics and philosophy of science, was born in Vienna, Austria, the son of Hans Frank, a chemist, and Marta Hoffmann. Frank received his doctorate in theoretical physics from the University of Vienna in 1907, having studied under Ludwig Boltzmann. During that year he published the essay “Kausalgesetz und Erfahrung” ( ...