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Edinger, Tilly (13 November 1897–27 May 1967), paleoecologist, was born Johanna Gabrielle Ottelie Edinger in Frankfurt-am-Main, Germany, the daughter of Ludwig Edinger, a noted medical researcher, and Anna Goldschmidt, a leader of social-welfare movements. Although her father did not approve of careers for women, Tilly Edinger became interested in geology. She redirected her university studies, however, when she found that women were rarely accepted into that field. She received a doctorate in natural philosophy at Frankfurt in 1921, having also studied at the universities of Heidelberg and Munich from 1916 to 1918. Her dissertation was based on a study of the skull and cranial cavity of the fossil reptile ...

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Gardner, Julia Anna (26 January 1882–15 November 1960), geologist, paleoecologist, and fossil mollusc taxonomist, was born in Chamberlain, South Dakota, the daughter of Charles Henry Gardner, a physician, and Julia M. Brackett, a schoolteacher. She had seven half siblings through her father’s first marriage but was the only child of his second marriage. When Gardner was four months old, her father died. She and her mother lived in Chamberlain until 1895, then moved to her mother’s family home in Dixon, Illinois. In 1898 they moved to Massachusetts, then later to Vermont....