1-20 of 67 results  for:

  • Science and technology x
  • scientific administrator x
Clear all

Article

Adams, Roger (02 January 1889–06 July 1971), chemist and administrator, was born in Boston, the son of Austin W. Adams, a railroad official, and Lydia Curtis. He was related to the Adams presidential family. He completed the undergraduate course in chemistry at Harvard in three years (A.B., 1909). His Harvard Ph.D. thesis was in three parts, directed by H. A. Torrey, Latham Clark, and ...

Article

Aitken, Robert Grant (31 December 1864–29 October 1951), astronomer and fourth director of Lick Observatory, was born in Jackson, California, the son of Robert Aitken, an immigrant from Scotland and owner and operator of a meat market, and Wilhelmina Depinau. Aitken did his undergraduate work at Williams College, originally planning to become a minister. There he became interested in astronomy, under the tutelage of ...

Image

Alexander Dallas Bache. Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-USZ62-18181).

Article

Bache, Alexander Dallas (19 July 1806–17 February 1867), scientist and educator, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of Richard Bache, a postmaster, and Sophia Dallas. An elite family history supported Bache’s upbringing. He was the great-grandson of Benjamin Franklin and was related to a number of influential men, including his uncle ...

Article

Bailey, Pearce (22 July 1902–23 June 1976), neurologist and federal health science administrator, was born in New York City, the son of Pearce Bailey, a prominent neurologist, and Edith L. Black. Bailey’s choice of a career was doubtless influenced by the fact that his physician father was president of the American Neurological Association in 1913 and was a cofounder of the Neurological Institute at Columbia University in New York City. After graduation from Princeton University with an A.B. in 1924, Bailey pursued postgraduate studies at Columbia University, from which he received an M.A. in psychology in 1931. He then studied at the Université de Paris, where he earned a Ph.D. in psychology in 1933; took an honors course in chemistry at the University of London in 1934; and earned an M.D. at the Medical College of South Carolina at Charleston in 1941....

Article

Baird, Spencer Fullerton (03 February 1823–19 August 1887), zoologist and scientific administrator, was born in Reading, Pennsylvania, the son of Samuel Baird, a lawyer, and Lydia McFunn Biddle. He initially attended Reading Grammar School, but after his father died, when Baird was ten years old, his family moved to Carlisle, Pennsylvania. He attended a Quaker boarding school near Port Deposit, Maryland, for six months, then attended the Carlisle grammar school. In 1836 he entered Dickinson College, from which he graduated with an A.B. in 1840. By then, both Spencer and his eldest brother Will had become avid collectors of birds and other natural history specimens. They jointly published their first scientific paper ( ...

Article

Barnard, Frederick Augustus Porter (05 May 1809–27 April 1889), scientist and university president, was born in Sheffield, Massachusetts, the son of Robert Foster Barnard, an attorney, and Augusta Porter. He attended school at the Saratoga Academy across the state border in New York and then at the Stockbridge Academy, where he was a classmate and friendly rival of ...

Article

Bauer, Louis Agricola (26 January 1865–12 April 1932), geophysicist and scientific administrator, was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, the son of Ludwig Bauer and Wilhelmina Buehler, occupations unknown. His father and mother were both brought to the United States from Germany by uncles about 1848. Bauer was the sixth of nine children. Born with no middle name, he jokingly conferred one on himself (Agricola is a Latin translation of Bauer, “farmer”). Although little more is known of the family, it is clear that they had adequate resources to send Bauer to college. He married Adelia Francis Doolittle in 1891. They had one child....

Article

Berelson, Bernard (02 June 1912–25 September 1979), behavioral scientist, was born in Spokane, Washington, the son of Max Berelson, owner of a furniture business, and Bessie Shapiro. Berelson received an A.B. from Whitman College in 1934 and a B.S. (1936), an M.A. (1937), and a Ph.D. (1941), all from the University of Washington and all in library science. He was a professor of library science from 1946 and dean of the Graduate Library School at the University of Chicago until 1951....

Article

Bolton, Elmer Keiser (23 June 1886–30 July 1968), chemist and industrial research director, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of George Bolton, the owner of a men’s clothing store, and Jane Holt. After attending Philadelphia’s prestigious Central High School and obtaining a B.A. from Bucknell University in 1908, Bolton undertook graduate studies at Harvard University. There, he received an A.M. in 1910 and a Ph.D. in organic chemistry in 1913 under ...

Article

Bowen, Ira Sprague (21 December 1898–06 February 1973), astrophysicist and first director of the combined Mount Wilson and Palomar Observatories, was born in Seneca Falls, New York, the son of James H. Bowen, a Methodist minister, and Philinda Sprague, who became a teacher after her husband’s death. Bowen (always known as “Ike” to his friends) attended the high school and three years of the junior college that formed part of the Houghton Wesleyan Methodist Seminary, at which his mother taught. He was an excellent student. His teacher in physics, mathematics, and astronomy, J. S. Luckey, the president of the college, helped him transfer to Oberlin College for his senior year. Bowen received his A.B. at Oberlin in 1919 and entered the University of Chicago as a graduate student in physics. In two years he took all the graduate courses taught by ...

Article

Buckley, Oliver Ellsworth (08 August 1887–14 December 1959), telecommunications engineer, was born in Sloan, Iowa, the son of William Doubleday Buckley, a lawyer and school superintendent, and Sarah Elizabeth Jeffrey, secretary to her husband. Buckley’s introduction to telecommunications came in 1903 when he went to work as a maintenance man for the local telephone exchange while completing high school. He studied mathematics and physics at Grinnell College and received his B.S. degree in 1909. He then taught physics at Grinnell for a year before enrolling in the graduate physics program at Cornell University; in 1914 he received his Ph.D. in physics. He married Clara Louise Lane that year; they had four children. On completing his Ph.D. Buckley joined the research department of the Western Electric Company, a subsidiary of the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T)....

Article

Bush, Vannevar (11 March 1890–28 June 1974), science administrator and engineer, was born in Everett, Massachusetts, the son of Richard Perry Bush, a Universalist minister, and Emma Linwood Paine. Bush grew up in modest circumstances in Chelsea, Massachusetts, and attended Tufts University, graduating in 1913 with a B.S. and an M.S. At Tufts he first encountered electrical engineering and an ideology of engineering; he also developed there his lifelong interests in invention and the patent system. With the idea of improving his career prospects, Bush first enrolled in 1915 in the graduate program in mathematical physics at Clark University but left shortly afterward. He then enrolled in a graduate doctoral engineering program jointly offered by MIT and Harvard and received a doctorate of engineering after one year of heroic efforts with a thesis on the oscillatory behavior of currents in power lines. The joint degree was rare; the doctorate was only the fifth awarded by MIT. Bush, who was a mathematics instructor at Tufts in 1914–1915, rejoined the Tufts faculty in the fall of 1916 as an assistant professor of electrical engineering. At this time, he became a technical consultant to the Morgan-financed American Research and Development Corporation (AMRAD), which was seeking promising radio inventions. During World War I he invented an electromagnetic device for determining the location of submarines; frustrating experiences with the navy influenced his later views. In 1916 he married Phoebe Davis; they had two sons....

Article

Carmichael, Leonard (09 November 1898–16 September 1973), experimental psychologist and institutional administrator, was born in Germantown, Pennsylvania, the son of Thomas Harrison Carmichael, a physician, and Emily Leonard, a teacher and administrator. He entered Tufts College in 1917, volunteered as a private in the U.S. Army in 1918, and received his B.S. in biology summa cum laude in 1921. His Ph.D. in psychology was awarded by Harvard University in 1924, and he joined the Princeton University psychology department that same year. While still in graduate school, he was identified as an especially promising scholar, and he rose rapidly through the academic ranks. In 1927 he moved to Brown University as director of the Psychological Laboratory and was promoted to professor the following year....

Article

Carty, John Joseph (14 April 1861–27 December 1932), electrical engineer and research administrator, was born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, the son of Henry Carty, a machinist and metal founder, and Elizabeth O’Malley. Carty grew up in Cambridge, graduating from the Cambridge Latin School before a temporary vision impediment sidetracked plans for a college education. After working for a Boston philosophical apparatus (scientific instrument) maker, he began his career in the infant telephone industry in 1879 as an operator for the Boston Telephone Despatch Company. This company was a licensee of the New England Telephone Company, which was formed by the original Bell Telephone Company....

Article

Clark, William Bullock (15 December 1860–27 July 1917), professor of geology and administrator of scientific organizations, was born in Brattleboro, Vermont, the son of Barna Atherton Clark, a merchant, and Helen Bullock. Clark graduated from Brattleboro high school in 1879 and entered Amherst College the following year. After receiving his bachelor’s degree in 1884, he traveled to Europe with two of his professors and settled in Munich for graduate studies in paleontology, receiving a Ph.D. in 1887. Two years earlier, a Department of Geology had been organized at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, and the founder of that department, George H. Williams, was able to convince the university administration he needed more assistance....

Article

Compton, Karl Taylor (14 September 1887–22 June 1954), physicist and science administrator, was born in Wooster, Ohio, the son of Elias Compton, a professor at the University of Wooster, and Otelia Augspurger. Compton’s parents strongly supported their children’s intellectual endeavors, and his younger brother, ...

Image

William David Coolidge. Courtesy of the Clendening History of Medicine Library, University of Kansas Medical Center.

Article

Coolidge, William David (23 October 1873–03 February 1975), physicist, inventor, and research director, was born in Hudson, Massachusetts, the son of Albert Edward Coolidge and Martha Shattuck, farmers. He grew up on a farm and briefly dropped out of school to work in a rubber factory; a few months there convinced him he had made a mistake. He completed high school and went on to earn a B.S. in electrical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1896....

Article

Davenport, Charles Benedict (01 June 1866–18 February 1944), geneticist, eugenicist, and science administrator, was born at his family’s farm, “Davenport Ridge,” near Stamford, Connecticut, where four generations of Davenports had lived, the son of Amzi Benedict Davenport, a real estate agent, and his second wife, Jane Joralemon Dimon. Because of the nature of his father’s business, the family spent winters in Brooklyn. Davenport’s mother, a religious skeptic and avid naturalist, helped cultivate these characteristics in her son. His father’s stern and uncompromising Protestantism was also a strong influence, and young Charles was tutored at home where he could learn the values of discipline and hard work and also serve as janitor and errand boy for his father’s business. Davenport developed a quiet, even taciturn demeanor, but from an early age he communicated voluminously in journals and diaries....