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Hirschensohn, Chaim (25 August 1855–16 September 1935), Orthodox rabbi and author, was born in Safed, Palestine, the son of Yaacov Mordecai, a rabbi, and Sarah Bayla of Pinsk in Belorussia (now Russia). His parents had emigrated from Pinsk to the land of Israel in 1847. They lived in Safed until 1864, at which time they moved to Jerusalem. Hirschensohn’s father was a noted scholar and educator as well as his primary teacher. In 1875 Hirschensohn married Hava Sarah, daughter of Rabbi Shaul Binyamin ha-Cohen. He engaged in business but with limited success....

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Jung, Leo (20 June 1892–19 December 1987), rabbi, teacher, and author, was born in Ungarisch Brod in Moravia, the son of Meir Tzevi Jung, a rabbi, and Ernestine Silbermann. As a young man he was exposed to a number of diverse influences that combined to fashion his intellectual orientation. While yet a young lad, he attended traditional Hungarian talmudic academies in Eperjes and Galanta, and from 1911 to 1914 he continued his religious studies in the more enlightened environment of the famed Hildesheimer Rabbinical Seminary in Berlin. Beginning in 1910 he also devoted himself to pursuing a secular education, studying philosophy and classical languages at the University of Vienna (1910–1911); Arabic, Assyrian, the history of art, English drama, German literature, and the philosophy of history at the University of Berlin (1912–1914); at the University of Marburg (1913–1914); at the University of Giessen (1914), where he received his first Ph.D.; at the University of London (1916–1918), from which he received a B.A. with honors in Hebrew, Aramaic, Syriac, and elementary Arabic; and at Cambridge University (1918–1919). His revised dissertation on “Legends of the Fall of Angels in Judaism and Other Religions” was approved in 1921, and the University of London awarded him a Ph.D. in 1922. While in England he received two rabbinic ordinations, one from Rabbi Mordecai Zevi Schwartz in 1915 and one from the future chief rabbi of Palestine, Rabbi Abraham Kook, in 1918. In 1920 he also received his third ordination from Rabbi David Z. Hoffmann, then rector of the Hildesheimer Rabbinical Seminary. Jung married Irma Rothschild of Zurich in February 1922. The couple had four daughters....

Article

Kaplan, Mordecai Menahem (11 June 1881–08 November 1983), rabbi and founder of Reconstructionism, was born in Sventzian, Lithuania, the son of Israel Kaplan, a rabbi and prominent talmudic scholar, and Haya Nehama Kovarsky, who managed the family store. At the age of eight, he emigrated to the United States with his family, and they settled in New York City. He received a traditional education mostly from his father, which gave him a solid grounding in classical rabbinic texts. Kaplan attended City College of New York (B.A., 1900) and Columbia University (M.A., 1902) and received rabbinical ordination from the Jewish Theological Seminary (1902)....