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Pauli Murray Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-USZ62-109644).


Murray, Pauli (20 November 1910–01 July 1985), lawyer, writer, and minister, was born Anna Pauline Murray in Baltimore, Maryland, the daughter of William Henry Murray, a public school teacher, and Agnes Fitzgerald, a nurse. Triracial, she had African, European, and Native American ancestry. Her parents both died when she was a child (her mother had a cerebral hemorrhage in March 1914; her father was murdered in a state hospital in June 1923), and she grew up from age three in North Carolina with her maternal grandparents and her mother’s oldest sister, Pauline Fitzgerald Dame, a public school teacher who adopted her....


Whipple, Henry Benjamin (15 February 1822–16 September 1901), Episcopal bishop and champion of Indian rights, was born in Adams, New York, the son of John Hall Whipple, a merchant, and Elizabeth Wager. Raised in a Presbyterian home, he studied in private schools supported by that denomination until he went to Oberlin College in 1838. Forced by poor health to leave the following year, Whipple spent the first decade of his adult life as an inspector of township schools and a militiaman and served for a year as secretary of the New York Democratic party (1847). He was also continuously associated with his father’s mercantile activities. In 1842 he married Cornelia Wright; over the years they had six children. Whipple’s wife belonged to the Episcopal church, as did his grandparents. This combination of influences helped him decide to become Episcopalian too and to seek the priesthood. Accordingly, he studied theology under William D. Wilson of Albany, New York, from 1847 to 1850. After ordination as deacon in 1849 and as priest in 1850 he was ready for an ecclesiastical vocation....