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Fincke, William M. (01 January 1878–31 May 1927), pacifist minister and educator, was born William Mann Fincke in New York City, the son of William H. Fincke, a wealthy businessman, and Julia Murrid Clark Fincke. In 1897 he graduated from the Hill School and in the fall entered Yale University, “where he played halfback on the varsity eleven” ( ...

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Firth, Roderick (30 January 1917–22 December 1987), philosopher and educator, was born in Orange, New Jersey, the son of Leo Earl Firth, who was in the advertising business, and Ida Lake. Firth attended primary and secondary schools in New Jersey and spent summers boarding at Mountain Farm in Cobbleskill, New York. In 1934 he graduated from Newark Academy and in the same year entered Haverford College....

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Allen Ginsberg, late 1960s. Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-USZ62-119239).

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Ginsberg, Allen (03 June 1926–06 April 1997), poet, was born in Newark, New Jersey, the younger son of Louis Ginsberg, a high school English teacher and and Naomi Levy Ginsberg. Ginsberg grew up with his older brother Eugene in a household shadowed by his mother's mental illness; she suffered from recurrent epileptic seizures and paranoia. An active member of the Communist Party–USA, Naomi Ginsberg took her sons to meetings of the radical left dedicated to the cause of international Communism during the Great Depression of the 1930s....

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Hughan, Jessie Wallace (25 December 1875–10 April 1955), pacifist, socialist, and teacher, was born in Brooklyn, New York, the daughter of Samuel Hughan, an accountant and librarian, and Margaret West. Both parents were religious seekers and followers of Henry George’s Single Tax theory. Hughan attended Barnard College, graduating in 1898 with an A.B. in economics. A year later she received an A.M. from Columbia University with a thesis on Henry George’s economic theories. In 1910 she was awarded a Ph.D. from Columbia; the title of her dissertation was “The Present Status of Socialism in America.” Having become acquainted with Socialist party members through her research, she herself became a socialist in 1907. The Socialist party recognized her leadership potential and appointed her to its executive committee and that of the Inter-Collegiate Socialist Society, later the League for Industrial Democracy. She also ran as a socialist candidate for a number of offices, including the U.S. Senate in 1924....

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Mary Emma Woolley Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-USZ62-111858).

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Woolley, Mary Emma (13 July 1863–05 September 1947), educator, feminist, and peace activist, was born in South Norwalk, Connecticut, the daughter of Joseph Judah Woolley, a Congregational minister, and his second wife, Mary Augusta Ferris. May, as she was called, spent a happy, nurturing childhood in New England, first in Meriden, Connecticut, and then, beginning in 1871, at her father’s new pastorate in Pawtucket, Rhode Island. Reverend Woolley’s attempts to combine religious and social work—whether in reaching out to factory workers or in challenging St. Paul’s injunction of silence for women—profoundly influenced his daughter....