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Apgar, Virginia (07 June 1909–07 August 1974), physician, anesthesiologist, and teratologist, was born in Westfield, New Jersey, the daughter of Charles Emory Apgar, an insurance executive, and Helen May Clarke. She had two brothers, one of whom died of tuberculosis at age three. Apgar’s father conducted amateur experiments in electricity and astronomy, which stimulated her interest in science and medicine. After schooling in Westfield, Apgar attended Mount Holyoke College, obtaining her A.B. degree in 1929. She completed her M.D. at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York City, in 1933. Then followed two brilliant years in surgery at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, but the department chairman, Alan Whipple, discouraged her from surgical practice. He cited the depression and financial insecurities experienced by his previous female trainees and urged her instead to consider anesthesia, not yet a medical specialty but often done by women nurse practitioners. Apgar spent six months in anesthesia training at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, and six months at Bellevue Hospital in New York City before returning to Columbia-Presbyterian in 1938 as director of the Division of Anesthesiology; she was the first woman to head a medical division in that institution....

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Chisolm, Julian John (16 April 1830–01 November 1903), physician, was born in Charleston, South Carolina, the son of Robert Trail Chisolm, a planter, and Harriet Emily Schutt. He was also known as John Julian Chisolm.

Prior to his formal training in medicine, Chisolm spent three years in the office of Elias Horlbeck, a prominent practitioner in Charleston. Following the award of his M.D. in 1850 from the Medical College of the State of South Carolina, Chisolm continued his studies in Paris, with emphasis on eye surgery. He returned to Europe in 1859 to visit hospitals in London and Paris. With the outbreak of war between Italy and Austria, he traveled to Milan to observe the treatment of the wounded from the battles at Magenta and Solferino....

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Hays, Isaac (05 July 1796–12 April 1879), physician and editor, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of Samuel Hays, a merchant, and Richea Gratz. A successful merchant in the East India trade, Hays’s father attained considerable wealth and provided his son with an excellent education and introduction to the cultural life of Philadelphia. Raised in the Jewish faith, Hays was for many years a pupil in the Philadelphia grammar school run by the eminent divine and classical scholar Samuel B. Wylie, who later became professor of ancient languages at the University of Pennsylvania. Hays entered the university in 1812 and graduated four years later with a B.A....

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Lydston, G. Frank (03 March 1858–14 March 1923), urologist and transplant surgeon, was born George Frank Lydston in Jacksonville, California, the son of George Nelson Lydston, an entrepreneur and investor, and Lucy McGowan. From California George N. Lydston took his family to his native Maine in 1865 and then to Chicago, Illinois, in 1869. Young Lydston completed his secondary education and then studied medicine in Chicago under F. B. Norcom from 1876 to 1879. He attended Rush Medical College in Chicago in 1877–1878 and attended Bellevue Hospital Medical College in New York City, where he obtained his M.D. in February 1879....

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Young, Hugh Hampton (18 September 1870–23 August 1945), urologic surgeon, was born in San Antonio, Texas, the son of General William Hugh Young, a lawyer and real estate developer who had risen to the rank of brigadier general during the Civil War, and Frances Michie Kemper. Young attended public schools in San Antonio and then transferred to the San Antonio Academy. In 1888, at the age of eighteen, he was sent to study under his uncle at the Aspinhill School in Louisa County, Virginia. After his uncle accepted a professorship in Kentucky, Young spent a year at the Staunton (Va.) Academy. In 1890, after working for a summer with a surveyor, he enrolled in the University of Virginia, and three years later he was awarded simultaneously an A.B. and an A.M. A year later, in 1894, he obtained an M.D. from the University of Virginia....