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Hart, James Morgan (02 November 1839–18 April 1916), educator, translator, and writer, was born in Princeton, New Jersey, the son of John Seely Hart and Amelia Caroline Morford. After spending his childhood in Pennsylvania, he attended the College of New Jersey (now Princeton), graduating with an A.B. in 1860 and an A.M. in 1863. He also studied abroad in Geneva, Göttingen, and Berlin; he received the degree of Juris Utriusque Doctor (doctor of civil and canon law) from the University of Göttingen in 1864. Hart practiced law in New York City for several years and became an assistant professor of modern languages at Cornell (1868–1872), where he taught southern European languages. He published a number of translations, the most important being his version of Franz Dingelstedt’s ...

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Payne, William Morton (14 February 1858–11 July 1919), writer, translator, and educator, was born in Newburyport, Massachusetts, the son of Henry Morton Payne, a manufacturer of machinery for cotton mills, and Emma Tilton. In 1868 the Paynes relocated to Chicago, where William continued his primary and secondary schooling and displayed a keen interest in literature. Financial difficulties ruled out further formal education but failed to deter young Payne from avidly pursuing self-education. Payne, who never married, remained in Chicago for the duration of his life and became one of that city’s better-known citizens....

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Wiener, Leo (28 July 1862–12 December 1939), philologist, translator, and educator, was born in Bialystok, Russia (now part of Poland), the son of Salomon Wiener, a scholar and teacher, and Frederika Rabinowitch, who was descended from a distinguished rabbinic family. Wiener grew up in a multilingual environment congenial to his stunning linguistic abilities. Although Wiener had a French governess, his father insisted that German be spoken at home. Hebrew was cultivated as the traditional language of prayer, study, and Jewish intellectual discourse, while Yiddish, Russian, and Polish were the vernaculars most commonly used in Bialystok....