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Friedlaender, Israel (08 September 1876–05 July 1920), professor and Semitics scholar, was born in Włodawa, Poland, the son of Pinḥas Friedlaender, a cattle dealer, and Gittel Ehrlich. He was raised in Praga, a suburb of Warsaw, in comfortable circumstances in a traditional yet enlightened Jewish household. In early childhood Friedlaender acquired an almost verbatim knowledge of the Hebrew Bible as well as of the corpus of rabbinic literature. Studying with a private tutor, he also mastered the German language and its literary classics....

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Manly, John Matthews (02 September 1865–02 April 1940), philologist and educator, was born in Sumter County, Alabama, the son of the Reverend Charles Manly, a Baptist minister and educator, and Mary Esther Hellen Matthews. The Manlys were a prominent southern family, and John Matthews’s grandfather, Basil Manly, his uncle, ...

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Marden, Charles Carroll (21 December 1867–11 May 1932), philologist and university professor, was born in Baltimore, Maryland, the son of Jesse Marden and Anna Maria Brice. After completing his secondary education at Baltimore’s City College high school, Marden remained in his hometown and entered Johns Hopkins University, from which he received an A.B. in 1889. Following graduation, he moved to Norfolk, Virginia, where he served as instructor in modern languages at Norfolk Academy during the academic year of 1889–1890. After spending the following year in Ann Arbor as an instructor in French at the University of Michigan, he returned to Johns Hopkins and entered graduate school. Under the mentorship of ...

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Wiener, Leo (28 July 1862–12 December 1939), philologist, translator, and educator, was born in Bialystok, Russia (now part of Poland), the son of Salomon Wiener, a scholar and teacher, and Frederika Rabinowitch, who was descended from a distinguished rabbinic family. Wiener grew up in a multilingual environment congenial to his stunning linguistic abilities. Although Wiener had a French governess, his father insisted that German be spoken at home. Hebrew was cultivated as the traditional language of prayer, study, and Jewish intellectual discourse, while Yiddish, Russian, and Polish were the vernaculars most commonly used in Bialystok....