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Blum, Virgil Clarence (27 March 1913–05 April 1993), educator, author, activist, and clergyman, was born in Defiance, Iowa, one of twelve children of John Peter and Elizabeth (Rushenberg) Blum, both farmers. His grade school and high school years were spent at St. Peter's school in Defiance. In 1932 he began college at Dowling College, Des Moines, Iowa, and the next year transferred to Creighton University in Omaha, Nebraska. On 31 Aug. 1934 he entered the Society of Jesus at St. Stanislaus Seminary at Florissant, Missouri, where he earned a bachelor's degree in Latin and English in 1938. (A brother, Victor Joseph, also became a Jesuit and became a professor of geophysics and seismology at St. Louis University). Virgil studied philosophy at St. Louis University in St. Louis, Missouri, continuing studies in the summer until he earned a master's degree in history and political science in 1945....

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Fainsod, Merle (02 May 1907–11 February 1972), political scientist and educator, was born in McKees Rocks, Pennsylvania, the son of Louis Fainsod and Frieda Marcus, shopkeepers. After Fainsod’s father died in 1920 the family moved to St. Louis, Missouri. Fainsod graduated from Washington University in St. Louis in 1928 with a degree in political science, and two years later received a master’s degree in the same field. He then went to Harvard University, where he received his Ph.D. in 1932, completing his doctorate in only two years; his dissertation was revised and published as ...

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Freund, Ernst (30 January 1864–20 October 1932), professor of law and political science, was born in New York City, the son of Ludwig A. Freund and Nannie Bayer. His parents were natives of Berlin, Germany; before 1875 they returned to that city, and Freund was educated there. He was awarded a doctorate (J.U.D.) in canon and civil law at Heidelberg in 1884, and in that year he elected to return to New York as a native citizen. There he studied law and politics at Columbia University, where his mentor was ...

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Lieber, Francis (18 Mar. 1798 or 1800–02 October 1872), educator and political writer, was born in Berlin, Germany, the son of Friedrich Wilhelm Lieber, an iron merchant. (His mother’s name is not known.) Raised in a large middle-class family of nationalistic sentiments, Lieber witnessed the conquering of Berlin by Napoleon in 1806. He fought in the Colberg militia and was wounded in the Waterloo campaign in 1815. An adherent of the educator Friedrich Ludwig Jahn, active in secret patriotic societies, and (falsely?) implicated in the assassination of August von Kotzebue, Lieber was spied on and twice imprisoned by the police. He received a Ph.D. in mathematics from Jena in 1820 and also studied at Halle, Dresden, and Berlin. Under the influence of Barthold Niebuhr, Friedrich E. D. Schleiermacher, and Alexander von Humboldt, he was drawn mainly to the study of politics, law, and history. Fearing further persecution, in 1826 he left Germany for England where, as a tutor, he met his future wife, Mathilda Oppenheimer. In 1827 he emigrated to the United States. He married Mathilda in 1829 and became a naturalized citizen three years later....

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Moley, Raymond (27 September 1886–18 February 1975), professor of public law and presidential adviser, was born in Berea, Ohio, the son of Felix James Moley, proprietor of a “gent’s furnishings” store, and Agnes Fairchild. With the onset of the 1893 depression, the family moved to the nearby hamlet of Olmsted Falls. After graduating from Cleveland’s Baldwin-Wallace College (B. Phil., 1906), he became a teacher and superintendent of schools at Olmsted Falls (1906–1910). Stricken by tuberculosis in 1909, Moley sought a cure by moving to New Mexico and Colorado. Upon his return to Ohio in 1912, he pursued an M.A. in political science at Oberlin College (1913) while teaching at West High School in Cleveland. He then earned a Ph.D. at Columbia University (1918) while serving as instructor and then assistant professor at Western Reserve University (1916–1919). Moley married Eva Dall in 1916; they had two sons. In 1946, after divorcing Eva, he married Frances S. Hebard, with whom he had one daughter....

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Walsh, Edmund Aloysius (10 October 1885–31 October 1956), Roman Catholic priest, educator, and author, was born in Boston, Massachusetts, the son of John Francis Walsh, a policeman, and Catherine Noonan. His elementary education was in the city’s public schools and his secondary education in the preparatory division of Boston College. In 1902 he entered the novitiate of the Society of Jesus at Frederick, Maryland. After a decade of humanistic studies and teaching, Walsh pursued private studies in Dublin, Ireland, and London, England, during the academic year of 1912–1913. Sent to Innsbruck, Austria, in the fall of 1913 to begin theological studies, he returned to the United States after the outbreak of World War I to complete his theological work at Woodstock College in Maryland, where he was ordained by Cardinal ...

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Wildavsky, Aaron Bernard (31 May 1930–04 September 1993), college professor and administrator, was born in Brooklyn, New York, the son of Sender Wildavsky, a bookbinder and apartment manager, and Eva Brudnow. Both parents emigrated from the Ukraine as young adults.

At Brooklyn’s Public School 89 and Erasmus Hall High School, Wildavsky had a modest academic record, but at Brooklyn College, where his college work was interrupted by service in the U.S. Army from 1950 to 1952, he blossomed in the classroom, graduating Phi Beta Kappa. A Fulbright scholar at the University of Sydney in Australia (1954–1955), he earned the M.A. (1957), followed by a Ph.D. (1959) at Yale, which was developing a reputation as an outstanding graduate program in political science....