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Bishop, Bernice Pauahi (19 December 1831–16 October 1884), native Hawaiian high chiefess and philanthropist, was born Pauahi in Honolulu, the daughter of Abner Paki and Konia (maiden name unknown), both of chiefly rank. She was the great-granddaughter of King Kamehameha I, who united the islands under his rule in 1810. Her father was an adviser to ...

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Bishop, Charles Reed (25 January 1822–07 June 1915), banker, cabinet minister, and philanthropist, was born near Glens Falls, New York, the son of Samuel Bishop, a toll collector on the Hudson River, and Maria Reed. Charles’s mother died when he was two years old, and his father remarried. He was cared for first by an aunt and then by his paternal grandfather on whose farm he received an education in hard work and practical business. His only formal education was at Glens Falls Academy, which he attended in the seventh and eighth grades. Around 1838, after leaving school, he became a clerk in a mercantile house in Warrensburgh, New York, where he learned the intricacies of bookkeeping, inventory, and other business skills. In 1842 he moved to Sandy Hill, New York, to take a job as a bookkeeper and head clerk....

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Cooper, Henry Ernest (28 August 1857–15 May 1929), lawyer and politician, was born in New Albany, Indiana, the son of William Giles Cooper and Harriet A. Weller. The details of his childhood are unknown. Cooper received his law degree from Boston University in 1878 and was admitted to the bar that same year. Business interests in a railroad took him to San Diego, California, where he married Mary E. Porter in 1883; they had eight children....

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Dole, Sanford Ballard (23 April 1844–09 June 1926), president of the Republic of Hawaii and governor of the territory of Hawaii, was born in Honolulu, Hawaii, the son of Daniel Dole and Emily Hoyt Ballard, Congregational missionaries to the islands who superintended Punahou School. His father also served as pastor at the Seamen’s Bethel in Honolulu. His mother died when Dole was four days old, and he was cared for by other missionary families, first the Chamberlains and then the Bishops, until 1846, when his father married Charlotte Knapp, who raised him as her own son. Dole attended Punahou School, then spent his senior year (1866–1867) at Williams College in Williamstown, Massachusetts. Upon graduation he studied law for a year in Boston. On 10 September 1868 he passed the bar examination and was admitted to practice law in Suffolk County. “I look upon law,” Dole wrote to his parents, “as a possible stepping stone to influence and power in Government, where they need good men, and where a good man could, I think, do more for the nation, for morality and justice, than preaching to the natives.” He returned to Hawaii to open his law practice. In 1873 he married Anna Prentice Cate. They built a home on Emma Street in Honolulu and attended the Fort Street Church. Along with law, Dole continued numerous hobbies, from bird watching to yacht racing....

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Emma (02 January 1836–25 April 1885), queen consort of Kamehameha IV of Hawaii and philanthropist, queen consort of Kamehameha IV of Hawaii and philanthropist, was born either in Honolulu or in Kawaihae on the island of Hawaii, the daughter of George Naea and Fanny Kekelaokalani Young, high-ranking ...

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Ii, John Papa (03 August 1800–02 May 1870), native Hawaiian jurist and historian, was born at Waipio, Ewa, Oahu Island, Kingdom of Hawaii, the son of Malamaekeeke and Wanaoa, descendants of the chiefs of Hawaii Island. Ii’s family were intimates and junior relatives of the ruling royal family, the Kamehameha dynasty. He was named Papa Ii (pronounced ēē) after an uncle who held a particularly high station in the Kamehameha court. He took the name John (Ioane) upon his conversion to Christianity. John Papa Ii was born into the aristocracy of ancient Hawaii and was a child of privilege. The family had been granted the rich lands at Waipio following the conquest of Oahu by King ...

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Judd, Albert Francis (07 January 1838–21 May 1900), attorney, and chief justice of the Supreme Court of the Hawaiian Kingdom and later of the Republic of Hawaii, was born in Honolulu, the son of Gerrit Parmele Judd, a medical missionary, and Laura Fish Judd...

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Judd, Gerrit Parmele (23 April 1803–12 July 1873), physician, medical missionary, and Hawaiian government official and adviser, was born in Paris, New York, the son of Elnathan Judd, Jr., a physician, and Betsey Hastings. Being the eldest son of a physician, Judd took an early interest in the medical profession and attended medical school in Fairfield, Herkimer County, where he received his M.D. in 1825. In 1826 Judd dedicated his life to the missionary cause as directed by the Boston-based Congregational American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (ABCFM). At this time the board was recruiting missionaries for the third company to join the Sandwich Islands Mission in Hawaii in the fall of 1827....

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Kaahumanu (17 March 1768–05 June 1832), Hawaiian kuhina nui (premier or coruler), Hawaiian kuhina nui (premier or coruler), was born on the island of Maui, the daughter of Keeaumoku and Namahana. Keeaumoku was a trusted friend and counselor of Kamehameha the Great and fought in the king’s wars to unify the islands. Namahana was of noble lineage and was the widow of the king of Maui. Although Kaahumanu’s birth date is in dispute, various Hawaiian cultural societies, such as the Kaahumanu Society in Honolulu, cite the date as 17 March 1768....

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Kalakaua [left to right] King Kalakaua of Hawaii and Robert Louis Stevenson, c. 1889. Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-USZ62-646).

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Kalakaua, David Laamea (16 November 1836–20 January 1891), king of the Hawaiian Islands, was born in Honolulu, the son of the high chief Kahanu Kapaakea and the high chiefess Analea Keohokalole. The infant was adopted, according to Hawaiian custom, by the chiefess Haaheo Kaniu, who took him to the court of King ...

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Kamehameha I. Albumen silver print, c. 1880, by Henry L. Chase. National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; gift of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum.

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Kamehameha I (1758–05 May 1819), unifier of the Hawaiian Islands, was born in Kohala, Hawaii. His lineage is disputed, with three men listed as his possible father: Kalani-Kupu-A-Keoua, Keouakalani, and Kahekili, the king of Maui. Although Kekuiapoiwa was his mother, he probably was adopted at birth by Naeole, who is credited with caring for him during the first five years of his life. Shortly before the birth of Kamehameha, a comet had appeared in the sky in 1758, which was interpreted by the kahunas (priests) to mean that the mightiest ruler of Hawaii was about to be born. Seeing this as a threat to his power, King Alapai, uncle of Kekuiapoiwa, ordered that her child be killed at birth. For this reason she had entrusted her newborn son, Kamehameha, to chief Naeole, who, with his sister Kakunuialaimoku, raised Kamehameha in secret until Alapai relented and allowed the child to be brought back to court. Kamehameha, whose name means the Lonely One, was not in line to inherit the kingdom in Kohala. As Kamehameha was growing up, the islands were divided into four kingdoms, each ruled by an alii-aimoku (ruling chief). The most significant of these chiefs were Kalaniopuu, of Hawaii (the largest island in the Hawaiian chain), who was the uncle of Kamehameha; and Kahekili. Kamehameha grew up in the court of his uncle Kalaniopuu. When Kalaniopuu died in 1782, his power was divided between Kamehameha, who was given guardianship of the war god Kukailimoku, and Kalaniopuu’s natural son Kiwalao, who inherited the kingship....

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Kamehameha II. Engraving on paper, 1824, by Unidentified Artist. National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; gift of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Joseph Verner Reed Collection.

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Kamehameha II ( November 1797–14 July 1824), second king in the Kamehameha line, was born Liholiho in Hilo, Hawaii, the son of Kamehameha the Great, king of the Hawaiian (or Sandwich) Islands, and Keopuolani, the king’s highest-ranking wife. Liholiho was brought up in his father’s court on the island of Hawaii. When the boy was five, his father declared him his successor, and from then on Liholiho was schooled in the traditional religious and political forms of Hawaiian rule. At nineteen he was described by several foreign visitors and sketched by Louis Choris, an artist aboard the Russian ship ...

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Kamehameha III (17 March 1813–15 December 1854), third king in the Kamehameha line, was born Kauikeaouli at Keauhou, North Kona, the son of Kamehameha the Great, king of the Hawaiian (or Sandwich) Islands, and Keopuolani, the king’s highest-ranking wife. He was the younger brother of ...

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Kamehameha IV (09 February 1834–30 November 1863), fourth king of the Hawaiian Islands in the Kamehameha line, was born Alexander Liholiho in Honolulu, Hawaii, the son of Mataio Kekuanaoa, the governor of Oahu, and Kinau, the second kuhina nui or prime minister of the kingdom. He was the grandson of ...

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Kamehameha V. Albumen silver print, c. 1870, by M. Dickson. National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; gift of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum.

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Kamehameha V (11 December 1830–11 December 1872), king of Hawaii, was born Lot, the third son of Kinau, a daughter of Kamehameha the Great, and Mataio Kekuanaoa. Kinau was the half sister of Kamehameha II (Liholiho) and Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli). When the two children of Kamehameha III died in infancy, he adopted the children of Kinau as his heirs; ...

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Kawananakoa, Abigail Wahiikaahuula Campbell (01 January 1882–12 April 1945), politician, was born in Honolulu, Hawaii, the daughter of James Campbell, a millionaire financier, landowner, and businessman, and Abigail Kuaihelani Maipinepine Bright. Her mother was a member of a part-native Hawaiian family from Lahaina, Maui, Hawaii. Her father was an immigrant from Derry, Ireland. Kawananakoa was educated at private schools in Honolulu. She then went to San Jose, California, where her father had business interests. Kawananakoa attended San Jose’s College of Notre Dame, a Roman Catholic convent, from which she graduated in 1900....