Carlos A. Schwantes
Coxey, Jacob Sechler (16 April 1854–18 May 1951), businessman, politician, and head of "Coxey's Army" of the unemployed, businessman, politician, and head of “Coxey’s Army” of the unemployed, was born in Selinsgrove, Pennsylvania, the son of Thomas Coxey, a stationary engineer, and Mary Sechler. Six years later his family moved twenty miles farther north to Danville, in Montour County, where his father worked in an iron-rolling mill. Young Jake attended public school for eight years and, at age sixteen, took a summer job as a water boy in the mill with his father. He quickly advanced to machine oiler and then boiler tender. By the time he left the mill at the age of twenty-four he had become a stationary engineer like his father....
Debs, Eugene Victor (05 November 1855–20 October 1926), labor organizer and presidential candidate for the Socialist Party of America, was born in Terre Haute, Indiana, the son of Marguerite Bettrich and Daniel Debs, Alsatian immigrants and retail grocers. Following the completion of ninth grade, Debs left school to work as a paint scraper on the Terre Haute and Vandalia Railroad. Within a year he rose to locomotive fireman but was laid off in the sustained economic depression of the mid-1870s. Searching for work in St. Louis in 1874, he encountered extensive urban poverty for the first time....
Norman D. Markowitz
Lovestone, Jay (24 December 1898–08 March 1990), political and international trade union figure, was born Jacob Leibstein in Czarist Russian Lithuania. His parents’ names are unknown. In 1907 Lovestone migrated with his family to New York, where his father obtained a position as a cantor. While attending the City College of New York during World War I, Lovestone became active in the Socialist party and the leader of the college’s socialist club. In the aftermath of the Russian Revolution, he emerged at City College as an ardent supporter of Lenin’s concept of a revolutionary vanguard party....