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Whitney, Charlotte Anita (07 July 1867–04 February 1955), social worker and political activist, was born in San Francisco, California, the daughter of George Whitney, an attorney and a California state legislator, and Mary Lewis Swearingen. U.S. Supreme Court Justice Stephen J. Field was an uncle. Whitney’s socially prominent, affluent parents, who originally were from the East, sent her to Wellesley College in 1885. She graduated in 1889 with a B.S. degree but no clear vision of her future. After several unsettled years, in 1893 Whitney trained in the new profession of social work at the College Settlement in New York City. There, among New York City’s poor immigrants, she developed a firsthand understanding of class differences and poverty. Returning to California in 1893 Whitney taught in private schools and opened a Boy’s Club in the slums of West Oakland. For several years she worked as the first probation officer of Alameda County, California, and later was secretary of the Associated Charities of Oakland. Whitney’s commitment to racial justice and woman suffrage emerged in the years after 1910: she became a charter member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and headed the California College Equal Suffrage League. When women won the vote in California, Whitney was instrumental in refashioning the league into the California Civic League, an organization through which women voters sought to make their influence felt....