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Grace Abbott Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-USZ62-111723).


Julie Longo and Sandra F. VanBurkleo

Abbott, Grace (17 November 1878–19 June 1939), social worker and administrator, was born in Grand Island, Nebraska, the daughter of Othman Ali Abbott, a lawyer and politician, and Elizabeth Griffin, a high school principal. The Abbott household provided an intellectually stimulating environment, emphasizing reading, discussion, and formal education for all four children. Othman Abbott encouraged both Grace and her older sister ...


Yellowtail, Robert Summers (1889–18 June 1988), Crow Indian politician, activist, and Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) official, was born near Lodge Grass, Montana on the Crow Indian Reservation to Yellowtail, a Crow Indian, and Elizabeth Frazee Chienne, of mixed Crow and French-Canadian descent. The exact date of his birth is unknown, but 1889 is widely regarded as the correct year. His parents were both enrolled members of the Crow tribe; his father belonging to the Big Lodge clan and his mother a member of the Whistling Waters clan (which became Robert Yellowtail’s clan, based on Crow matrilineal kinship). Born at a time when the Crows were experiencing extreme pressure to acculturate to white society, Robert was sent to a reservation boarding school and later attended Sherman Institute, a government-operated off-reservation boarding school in Riverside, California. Despite his early immersion in the white world, Robert followed precepts of Crow kinship norms and culture. Intelligent and outgoing he worked in the office of a local justice of the peace in California after graduating from Sherman Institute in 1907. Hoping to attend law school he returned to Montana around 1910 and became a stockman on the Crow Reservation....