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Alexander, Joseph Addison (24 April 1809–28 January 1860), Presbyterian scholar and minister, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of Janetta Waddel and Archibald Alexander, a Presbyterian minister. Alexander, who was always called Addison, grew up in Princeton, New Jersey, where in 1812 his father was called to be the first professor at Princeton Theological Seminary. At an early age, Alexander displayed the ability in languages that would make him a marvel throughout his life. By the time he began formal instruction with local tutors, his father had taught him the rudiments of Latin and Greek and also introduced him to Semitic languages. By the time he graduated from the College of New Jersey as a seventeen-year old in 1826, he had read the Koran in Arabic, made considerable progress in Persian and Syriac, and begun the wide-ranging study of contemporary European languages that he never stopped. It was his habit, begun before entering college and continuing to the week of his death, to read the Bible daily in at least six languages. Alexander’s nephew and biographer, Henry Carrington Alexander, concluded that he read, wrote, and spoke Latin, German, French, Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese; that he read without helps and wrote Arabic, Hebrew, Persian, Greek, Romaic, and Chaldean; that he could read Ethiopic, Dutch, Sanskrit, Syriac, Coptic, Danish, Flemish, and Norwegian; and that he knew enough Polish, Swedish, Malay, Hindustani, and Chinese to peruse works in these languages. The linguistic marvel was also a social recluse who never married and who, despite great interest in travel and world affairs, lived contentedly in Princeton as a student and professor his whole life. ...

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Allen, Alexander Viets Griswold (04 May 1841–01 July 1908), Episcopal priest, theologian, and educator, was born in Otis, Massachusetts, the son of Ethan Allen, a teacher and Episcopal priest, and Lydia Child Burr. His father served churches in Massachusetts and Vermont. Both parents were strongly evangelical in the Episcopal manner of the time, emphasizing biblical authority and teaching more than sacramental theology—a conviction that produced conflict in several of the churches that Allen’s father served. Their piety shaped Allen’s early views, leading him to enroll at Kenyon College in Gambier, Ohio, in 1859. Kenyon was an Episcopal institution then of an evangelical stamp. An excellent student, Allen delivered the valedictory address upon graduating in 1862 and immediately entered Bexley Hall, a theological seminary in Gambier....

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Bacon, Benjamin Wisner (15 January 1860–01 February 1932), clergyman and theological professor, was born in Litchfield, Connecticut, the son of Susan (née Bacon) and Leonard Woolsey Bacon, a clergyman. Bacon grew up surrounded by the traditions, habits and the learning of a family of distinguished New England clerics. His paternal grandfather, ...

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Baron, Salo Wittmayer (26 May 1895–25 November 1989), educator and Jewish historian, was born in Tarnow, Galicia, then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the son of Elias Baron, a banker, and Minna Wittmayer. Baron’s orthodox, intellectually enlightened family was one of the wealthiest of the Jewish community in Tarnow. The primary languages spoken in the household were Polish and German. Besides the Barons’ holdings in the town, they also owned an estate in the country and had a share in a family oil field. Private tutors instructed Baron in both secular and religious subjects. He later studied in Kraków and then in Vienna, where he received doctorates in history (1917), political science (1922), and jurisprudence (1923). He also continued his Jewish studies at the rabbinical seminary in Vienna and soon became an instructor in Jewish history at Vienna’s Jewish Teachers College....

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Barton, George Aaron (12 November 1859–28 June 1942), Assyriologist and biblical scholar, was born in East Farnham, Quebec, Canada, the son of Daniel Barton, a farmer and blacksmith, and Mary Stevens Bull. He attended the Oakwood Seminary, Poughkeepsie, New York, becoming a minister of the Society of Friends in 1879, and graduated from Haverford College with an A.B. in 1882 and an M.A. in 1885. Around 1883 he moved to Boston, where he worked in insurance for a year, then from 1884 to 1889 taught mathematics and classics at the Friends School in Providence, Rhode Island. In 1884 he married Caroline Brewer Danforth; they adopted one child. In 1889 he entered Harvard Graduate School (M.A. 1890), where he studied Assyriology with David G. Lyon and Semitics and the Bible with Crawford H. Toy and Joseph H. Thayer. In 1891 he received his Ph.D. for a study, “The Semitic Ishtar Cult,” later published in the ...

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Bowne, Borden Parker (14 January 1847–01 April 1910), philosopher, theologian, and educator, was born in Atlantic Highlands (formerly Leonardville), New Jersey, the son of Joseph Bowne and Margaret Parker. His father, a farmer and justice of the peace, served also as a local Methodist preacher. His father was a staunch abolitionist, and his mother, a descendent of Quaker stock, despised sham and vanity. Traits of both parents ran deep in their son....

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Breckinridge, Robert Jefferson (08 March 1800–27 November 1871), theologian and educator, was born at Cabell’s Dale (near Lexington) in Fayette County, Kentucky, the son of John Breckinridge, a lawyer and politician, and Mary Hopkins Cabell. Raised in one of the most prominent families in Kentucky, he attended Jefferson College between 1816 and 1818, spent a few months at Yale College in 1818, and finally graduated from Union College in 1819. After completing his schooling, he returned home to study law. Breckinridge married his cousin Ann Sophonisba Preston in 1823; they had four children. He opened his practice in 1824 and a year later was elected to represent Fayette County in the state legislature; he held that position until 1828....

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Campbell, Lucie E. (1885–03 January 1963), gospel composer and teacher, was born in Duck Hill, Mississippi, the daughter of Burrell Campbell, a railroad worker, and Isabella Wilkerson. Her mother was widowed several months after Lucie’s birth, and the family soon moved from Carroll County to Memphis, the nearest major city. Lucie and her many siblings struggled to survive on their mother’s meager wages, which she earned by washing and ironing clothing. Given the family’s insubstantial income, it could afford a musical education for only one child: Lucie’s older sister Lora. Lucie eventually learned to play piano, however, through her own persistence, a gifted ear for music, and a little help from Lora....

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Carnell, Edward John (28 June 1919–25 April 1967), theologian and educator, was born in Antigo, Langlade County, Wisconsin, the son of Herbert C. Carnell and Fannie Carstens, a fundamentalist minister and his wife who struggled to support their family by serving several Baptist churches in the Upper Midwest. Carnell attended Wheaton College from 1937 to 1941 and received an A.B. in philosophy. Although he sometimes worked thirty-five to forty hours a week in the dining hall as an undergraduate, Carnell was able to excel in philosophy under the tutelage of Professor Gordon Haddon Clark, whose philosophical defense of Christianity made a lasting impact on a generation of evangelical leaders who attended the midwestern fundamentalist liberal arts college during these years. From Wheaton, Carnell went to Westminster Seminary in Philadelphia, an institution that had been founded in opposition to Princeton Seminary in 1929 during the fundamentalist controversy. At Westminster he studied theology with the Dutch Calvinist Cornelius Van Til, whose system of theology stressed the intellectual differences between believers and nonbelievers, and he earned both a Th.B. and a Th.M (1944). Because the U.S. government deferred the draft of seminarians, Carnell did not serve in World War II. In 1944 he married Shirley Rowe, a schoolteacher; they had two children. Carnell went on to complete two doctorates. He first earned a Th.D. at Harvard University (1948), where he wrote a dissertation on the theology of ...

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Clebsch, William Anthony (19 July 1923–12 June 1984), church historian, developer of religious studies, and university professor, was born in Clarksville, Tennessee, the son of Alfred Clebsch, an owner of tobacco warehouses, and Julia Wilee. In 1944 he married Betsy Birchfield, a horticulturalist; they had two children....

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Deutsch, Gotthard (31 January 1859–14 October 1921), Jewish scholar and college professor, was born Eliezer Deutsch in Kanitz (Province of Moravia), Austria, the son of Bernhard L. Deutsch, a merchant, and Elise Wiener. He always called himself Gotthard, an attempted translation into German of his Jewish given name. Deutsch entered Breslau Jewish Theological Seminary in October 1876. While attending seminary classes, he also enrolled in afternoon classes at the University of Breslau. At the seminary, he was influenced by the noted Jewish historian Heinrich Graetz. Matriculating in 1879 at the University of Vienna, two years later he received his Ph.D. in history. While attending the university, he enrolled in a Talmudic course taught by Isaac Hirsch Weiss at Beth Hammidrash. During his studies in Vienna, Deutsch drew inspiration and guidance from both Weiss and Adolf Jellinek, an authority in midrashic research. Shortly after his graduation, Deutsch received Semichah (ordination) from Rabbi Weiss....

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DuBose, William Porcher (11 April 1836–18 August 1918), theologian, was born near Winnsboro, South Carolina, the son of Theodore Marion DuBose and Jane Porcher, planters. DuBose grew up in the aristocracy of the antebellum South. After attending Mount Sion Institute in Winnsboro, he went to the Citadel (the Military College of South Carolina), from which he was graduated as the ranking cadet officer in 1855. DuBose next attended the University of Virginia, where he received an M.A. in 1859. Then he entered the Episcopal diocesan seminary, established a year earlier, in Camden, South Carolina, to prepare for ordination. With the outbreak of the Civil War in the spring of 1861, DuBose left the seminary for service in the Confederate Army. In April 1863 he married Anne Barnwell Peronneau, and in December of that year was ordained to the diaconate of the Episcopal church. During the remainder of the war DuBose served as a military chaplain....

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Foster, Frank Hugh (18 June 1851–20 October 1935), theologian and educator, was born in Springfield, Massachusetts, the son of William F. Foster and Mary Flagg Miller. He received a B.A. from Harvard in 1873 and graduated from Andover Theological Seminary in 1877, when he was ordained a Congregationalist minister. In 1881–1882 he was a Parker Fellow at Harvard; the fellowship allowed him to study in Germany, and he earned a Ph.D. from the University of Leipzig in 1882. He was married twice, first to Eliza Grout in 1877, who died in 1912; they had three children. In 1913 he married Margaret Tracy Algoe, who died in 1920; they had no children....

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Foster, George Burman (02 April 1857–22 December 1918), theologian and educator, was born in Alderson, West Virginia, the son of Oliver Harrison Foster and Helen Louise Skaggs. Foster entered Shelton College in 1876 and graduated from West Virginia University in 1883. He served as pastor of the Baptist church in Morgantown, West Virginia, from 1883 to 1884. While there he married Mary Lyon in 1884; they had three children, none of whom survived Foster. Also in 1884 Foster enrolled in the ministerial course at Rochester Theological Seminary, graduating in 1887. He then served at the Baptist church in Saratoga Springs, New York, until 1891....

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Gerhart, Emanuel Vogel (13 June 1817–06 May 1904), theologian and educator, was born at Freeburg, Pennsylvania, the son of the Reverend Isaac Gerhart and Sarah Vogel. In 1833 he was enrolled in the Classical School of the German Reformed Church at York, Pennsylvania. In 1835, while Gerhart was a student, the school was moved to Mercersburg, Pennsylvania, and became Marshall College. Gerhart graduated from Marshall in 1838 and enrolled in the Theological Seminary of the Reformed Church, also located in Mercersburg. He completed his theological studies in 1841. During his student years in these institutions he was especially influenced by three of his professors: ...

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Harris, Samuel (14 June 1814–25 June 1899), theologian and educator, was born in East Machias, Maine, the son of Josiah Harris, a merchant and clerk of the court, and Lucy Talbot. At age fifteen Harris entered Bowdoin College, where he acquired a lifelong love of language and literature under the tutelage of ...

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King, Henry Churchill (18 September 1858–27 February 1934), theologian and educator, was born in Hillsdale, Michigan, the son of Henry Jarvis King, a college administrator, and Sarah Lee. He grew up in Hillsdale and attended Hillsdale College for over a year.

In 1877 King transferred to Oberlin College, from which he graduated in June 1879. He then began his theological studies at Oberlin Theological Seminary. While he was a seminary student King became a Latin and mathematics tutor in Oberlin’s preparatory department and served as summer school administrator. He received his bachelor of divinity degree in June 1882 and the following month married Julia Marana Coates in a ceremony performed by ...

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Krauth, Charles Porterfield (17 March 1823–02 January 1883), theologian and educator, was born in Martinsburg, Virginia (now W.Va.), the son of Charles Philip Krauth, a Lutheran minister, and Catherine Susan Heiskell. Between his mother’s death before his first birthday and his father’s peripatetic career, Krauth was raised at several sites in his first ten years before being settled in 1833 at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, where his father was president of Pennsylvania College, a Lutheran institution. Krauth matriculated at that college in 1834, graduated in 1839, then attended the affiliated Gettysburg Seminary from 1839 to 1841 to earn his credentials for the Lutheran ministry. He pastored churches in Baltimore, Maryland, from 1841 to 1847; in the upper Shenandoah Valley, principally Winchester, Virginia, from 1847 to 1855; and in Pittsburgh (1855–1859) and Philadelphia (1859–1861), Pennsylvania. Krauth was married twice: in 1844 to Susan Reynolds of Baltimore (she died in 1853) and in 1855 to Virginia Baker of Winchester, Virginia. He had five children, of whom two survived him....

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Machen, J. Gresham (28 July 1881–01 January 1937), educator and theologian, was born John Gresham Machen in Baltimore, Maryland, the son of Arthur Webster Machen, a lawyer, and Mary Gresham. Machen grew up in a prominent and affluent family that was part of a circle of southern gentry who had moved to Baltimore after the Civil War. In this setting Machen developed a deep affection for classical literature, rare books, and the heritage of the Old South. The Machen home also fostered a strong allegiance to the faith and practice of southern Presbyterianism even though the piety of Baltimore’s wealthy Presbyterians was a good deal more genteel than the spirituality of previous generations....

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Malter, Henry (23 March 1864?–04 April 1925), scholar, author, and teacher, whose given name is rendered in Hebrew as Tsvi, was born in Banse, near Zabno, Galicia, then part of Austria, the son of Solomon Malter, a scholarly man of modest means, and Rosa, whose maiden name, according to some American sources, was also the rather common name of Malter. Under his father’s tutelage, Malter became thoroughly grounded in Talmudic studies by early adolescence. The Hebrew weekly ...