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Bailey, Hannah Clark Johnston (05 July 1839–23 October 1923), philanthropist, reformer, and peace advocate, was born in Cornwall-on-the-Hudson, New York, the daughter of David Johnston, a tanner, and Letitia Clark. In 1853 her father moved the family to Plattekill, New York, where he became a farmer and minister of the Society of Friends (Quakers). She attended public school and a Friends’ boarding school and taught in rural New York from 1858 to 1867. Accompanying a female Quaker preacher on a mission to New England churches, almshouses, and prisons, Bailey met her future husband, Moses Bailey, a fellow Society member and prosperous manufacturer of oil cloth. They were married in 1868 and settled at his Winthrop, Maine, home. They had one child....

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Carrie Chapman Catt Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-USZ62-28475).

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Catt, Carrie Chapman (09 February 1859–09 March 1947), suffragist leader and peace activist, was born Carrie Clinton Lane in Ripon, Wisconsin, the daughter of Lucius Lane and Maria Clinton, farmers. In 1866 the family moved to a farm outside Charles City, Iowa, and Carrie thereafter identified herself as an Iowan. She was graduated from Iowa State Agricultural College (now Iowa State University) in 1880 with a B.S. She was a feminist long before she knew the word; at thirteen she was indignant when she realized that her mother could not vote in the presidential election. At college she organized a debate on woman suffrage and broke tradition by joining a public-speaking society. After graduation she read law for a year, then taught high school in Mason City, Iowa. She soon became the school’s principal as well as the superintendent of schools. In these posts she developed her organizational and administrative talents. They were the keystones to her success as a leader of women for the next sixty years....

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Hull, Hannah Hallowell Clothier (21 July 1872–04 July 1958), peace activist and suffragist, was born in Sharon Hill, Pennsylvania, the daughter of Isaac Hallowell Clothier and Mary Clapp Jackson. The fourth of nine children, Hannah Clothier grew up within the sheltered confines of wealthy Philadelphia society. Her father was a founding partner in the largest dry goods store in the United States, Strawbridge & Clothier, and the family devoted its considerable fortune to Quaker philanthropies, especially Swarthmore College. After attending the Friends’ Central School in Philadelphia, seventeen-year-old Hannah attended Swarthmore College for two years, leaving with a B.L. degree in 1891. The family forbade her from seeking paid employment, but she was able to spend five years engaged in volunteer settlement work in Philadelphia. In 1896 and 1897 Hannah resumed her studies in history and biblical literature at Bryn Mawr, and in 1898, at the age of twenty-six, she married William Isaac Hull, an associate professor of history and political science at Swarthmore College....

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Mead, Lucia True Ames (05 May 1856–01 November 1936), pacifist and suffragist, was born in Boscawen, New Hampshire, the daughter of Nathan Plummer Ames, a businessman and farmer, and Elvira Coffin. (She was initially given the middle name Jane but apparently changed it herself to True.) After her mother died when Lucia was five, the family moved to Chicago. Nine years later she returned east to live with an older brother in Boston; she was educated privately and then attended public high school in Salem, Massachusetts. Her intellectual development was encouraged by her maternal uncle, ...

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Fanny Garrison Villard. Albumen silver print, c. 1865, by Black & Case. National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; gift of Peter and Marlene Northey.

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Villard, Fanny Garrison (16 December 1844–05 July 1928), social reformer, suffragist, and pacifist, was born Helen Frances Garrison in Boston, Massachusetts, the daughter of Helen Eliza Benson and William Lloyd Garrison, the abolitionist leader and editor/publisher of the Liberator. Fanny and her four surviving brothers were raised in a political household. As the only surviving daughter in the leading abolitionist family in the United States, young Fanny was taught to incorporate certain political beliefs into her personal life. She was to oppose slavery and racism, embrace feminism in the public sphere, but accept fairly traditional Victorian ideas about women’s domestic role, and preach and practice nonviolence and conflict resolution in both her personal and political worlds. This mandate extended from never striking a child or animal to campaigning against war....