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Bass, Mary Elizabeth (05 April 1876–26 January 1956), physician, medical educator, and historian, was born in Carley, Mississippi, the daughter of Isaac Esau Bass and Mary Eliza Wilkes. She grew up in Marion County, where her father operated a gristmill and dry goods store. The 1890s economic depression bankrupted Isaac Bass, and the family moved to Lumberton, Mississippi, to invest in pecan orchards. The Basses were pious Baptists and active in civic concerns....

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Beck, John Brodhead (18 September 1794–09 April 1851), medical professor, was born in Schenectady, New York, the son of Caleb Beck, a lawyer, and Catharine Theresa Romeyn. Caleb Beck died in 1798, and Catharine Beck, powerfully committed to a thorough education for each of her five young sons, placed John in the home of her uncle, the Reverend John B. Romeyn, a Dutch Reformed theologian then living in Rhinebeck, New York. Under Romeyn’s tutelage, Beck studied classical languages....

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Beck, Theodric Romeyn (11 August 1791–19 November 1855), physician and professor, was born in Schenectady, New York, the son of Caleb Beck, a lawyer, and Catharine Theresa Romeyn, the daughter of the Reverend Derick Romeyn, a founder of Union College. After Caleb died in 1798, Catharine Beck assumed responsibility for raising their five sons....

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Cabell, James Lawrence (26 August 1813–13 August 1889), teacher of medicine and sanitarian, was born in Nelson County, Virginia, the son of George Cabell, a physician, and Susanna Wyatt. George Cabell’s brother Joseph was a founder of the University of Virginia. In 1839 James Cabell married Margaret Gibbons. They had no children of their own but did adopt two nieces....

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Caldwell, Charles (14 May 1772–09 July 1853), physician, author, and teacher, was born in Caswell County, North Carolina, the son of Charles Caldwell, a farmer. His mother’s maiden name was Murray, although her given name is unknown. Caldwell’s father was an elder in the Presbyterian church and wanted Charles to become a minister. Accordingly, from the age of eleven to fourteen, Caldwell studied Latin and classical literature at a Latin school operated by Dominie Harris in Mecklenburg County. By the time Caldwell left Harris’s school, however, he had decided against a religious career....

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Chapman, Nathaniel (28 May 1780–01 July 1853), physician and medical educator, was born in Fairfax County, Virginia, the son of George Chapman and Amelia Macrae. As a youth Chapman attended the Classical Academy in Alexandria, founded by George Washington. In 1795 he began his medical studies under the tutelage of John Weems and then of ...

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Drake, Daniel (20 October 1785–05 November 1852), physician, naturalist, and educator, was born near Bound Brook, New Jersey, the son of Isaac Drake and Elizabeth Shotwell, farmers. The family moved west in 1788 to Mays Lick, Kentucky. At the age of fifteen Drake was apprenticed to Dr. ...

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Eberle, John (10 December 1787–02 February 1838), physician, teacher, and author, was born in Manor Township, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Little is known about Eberle’s parents or his early life, except that his father was a blacksmith and that he was about twelve years old before he could speak the English language. Of Pennsylvania Dutch descent, Eberle had a heavy German accent throughout his life. A lover of books from a young age, Eberle was probably self-taught in his early years....

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Flint, Austin (20 October 1812–13 March 1886), physician and medical educator, was born in Petersham, Massachusetts, the son of Joseph Henshaw Flint, a physician, and Hannah Reed. Flint was the fourth generation of Massachusetts physicians of that surname, and his education was typical of medical education in antebellum America. He studied at Amherst College but entered Harvard Medical School before completing the arts curriculum. His preparation was among the best available in America of the 1830s; from ...

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Gallup, Joseph Adams (30 March 1769–12 October 1849), physician and medical educator, was born Joadam Gallup in Stonington, Connecticut, the son of William Gallup, a prominent legislator, and Lucy Denison. When Gallup was six years old he moved with his family to Hertford, New Hampshire Grants (later Hartland), Vermont. No record of his early education has been found, but his writings show evidence of a good classical background. He studied medicine, presumably in Hartland, with a preceptor and attended the first series of medical lectures at Dartmouth College, where in 1798 he was the first recipient of its bachelor of medicine degree. Practicing medicine in Hartland, then Bethel, and by 1800 in Woodstock (all in Windsor County, Vermont), he soon became a busy and well-respected physician. In 1814 Dartmouth awarded him an M.D., for which, according to the custom of the time, he qualified by having engaged in successful practice for several years and by submitting a thesis and passing an examination. In 1792 he married Abigail Willard; they had three children....

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Geddings, Eli (1799–09 October 1878), physician and educator, was born in Newberry County, South Carolina. He studied medicine at the Abbeville Academy from 1818 to 1820 and was licensed to practice by the Charleston Examination Board in 1820.

Geddings’s early practice was chiefly in Abbeville, in association with Dr. S. E. Davis, but in the winter of 1821–1822 he left to attend medical lectures at the University of Pennsylvania. He then returned to Abbeville and continued in his practice there until moving to Charleston, South Carolina, in September 1824. There he enrolled in the Medical College of South Carolina and in 1825 was among five in the first class of students to graduate from that newly formed institution. Upon graduation, Geddings spent a year working and studying in the hospitals of London and Paris, returning to Charleston in May 1827. He continued at the medical college as demonstrator of anatomy until 1828, while continuing to develop his private practice....

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Holmes, Oliver Wendell (29 August 1809–07 October 1894), physician, teacher of anatomy, and writer, was born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, the son of the Reverend Abiel Holmes and Sarah Wendell, Abiel’s second wife. A quintessential Boston Brahmin, Oliver was descended on his mother’s side from the old Boston families of Jackson and Quincy and from early Dutch settlers; ...

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Horner, William Edmonds (03 June 1793–13 March 1853), physician, teacher, and author, was born in Warrenton, Fauquier County, Virginia, the son of William Horner, a merchant, and Mary Edmonds. Slender in build and frail in health as a child, Horner found companionship in books rather than in other children. At the age of twelve Horner was sent to the private academy in Warrenton of the Reverend Charles O’Neill, an Episcopalian clergyman, where he spent four years....

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Jackson, Samuel (22 March 1787–04 April 1872), physician and medical educator, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of David Jackson, a pharmacist, and Susan (or Susanna) Kemper. In 1801 Jackson’s father died, leaving the family’s pharmacy business to Jackson’s older brother. Jackson studied medicine initially under James Hutchinson, Jr., who died shortly thereafter, and then under Casper Wistar. In 1808 Jackson received an M.D. from the University of Pennsylvania. He dedicated his thesis, “Suspended Animation,” to his teacher Wistar, who became professor of anatomy at Philadelphia the same year. At the death of his older brother in 1809, Jackson was left to salvage a failing pharmacy business....

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Jacobi, Abraham (06 May 1830–10 July 1919), physician, pediatrician, and medical educator, was born in Hartum, Westphalia, Prussia, the son of Eliezer Jacobi, a poor Jewish shopkeeper, and Julia Abel. Following Gymnasium in Mindin, he attended the Universities of Greifswald (1847–1848), Göttingen (1848–1849), and Bonn (1849–1851), from which he received his medical degree. In Berlin to take his state medical examinations in 1851, he was arrested for his part in the German revolution of 1848 and imprisoned for nearly two years. A close friend and fellow revolutionary, ...

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Janeway, Edward Gamaliel (31 August 1841–10 February 1911), physician and professor of medicine, was born in New Brunswick, New Jersey, the son of George Jacob Janeway, a physician, and Matilda Smith. Janeway attended Rutgers College, from which he graduated in 1860, and then entered the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York. His study of medicine was interrupted for a year by service at the U.S. Army Hospital in Newark (1862–1863), which significantly augmented his clinical experience. He received his medical degree in 1864 and joined the house staff of Bellevue Hospital. In 1866 Janeway became curator of Bellevue. In this position, with his colleagues ...

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Macfarlane, Catharine (07 April 1877–27 May 1969), physician and educator, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the daughter of John James Macfarlane and Henrietta Ottinger Huston, educators. Macfarlane was encouraged by her mother to pursue a career in science: “My choice of medicine as a profession was influenced almost entirely by my mother, a woman of rare wisdom and judgment,” she wrote in 1947. At the age of fifteen Macfarlane was sent to Germany to attend the Girls’ School in Leipzig. Upon her return to Philadelphia in 1893, she entered the University of Pennsylvania, from which she received a certificate in biology in 1895. In 1898 Macfarlane earned her M.D. from the Woman’s Medical College of Pennsylvania (WMCP) in Philadelphia, after which she served a one-year internship at the Woman’s Hospital of Philadelphia, followed by postgraduate study in gynecological urology at Johns Hopkins University. Further education included study with several of the most prominent figures in obstetrics and gynecology of her time at the Royal Charité, Berlin (obstetrics); Frauenklinik, University of Vienna (gynecology); and Radium Hemmet, Stockholm (radiology)....

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McLean, Franklin Chambers (22 February 1888–10 September 1968), physician, researcher, and educator, was born in Maroa, Illinois, the son of William Thomas McLean, a physician, and Margaret Philbrook Crocker. McLean was also the grandson of a physician, Chambers Argo McLean, and was given his grandfather’s name. His father often took young McLean on his remote farmhouse calls and impressed on him the idea of not only becoming a physician but also of attaining the chair of medicine at the University of Chicago....

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Means, James Howard (24 June 1885–03 September 1967), physician and educator, was born in Dorchester, Massachusetts, the son of James H. Means, a manufacturer, and Helen Farnsworth. His successful father retired early to devote himself to aeronautical studies; his interest in science was an early and strong influence on his son. At age fourteen the young Means read Charles Darwin’s ...

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Miller, Edward (09 May 1760–17 March 1812), physician and teacher, was born in Dover, Delaware, the son of John Miller, a clergyman, and Margaret Millington. Miller was born to devout Presbyterian parents. His father, an eminent classical scholar, was pastor of a Presbyterian church in Dover for more than forty years. Until he reached the age of fourteen, Miller was taught by his father at home, where he learned Latin and Greek and was introduced to classical literature. In 1774 Miller enrolled in a Presbyterian seminary school in Newark, Delaware, under the direction of ...