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Ames, Adelbert (31 October 1835–13 April 1933), soldier and politician, was born in Rockland, Maine, the son of Jesse Ames, a sea captain, and Martha B. Tolman. After spending some time at sea as a teenager, Ames entered the U.S. Military Academy, graduating in 1861. He was commissioned a second lieutenant and assigned to the Fifth Artillery. During the Civil War he was wounded at First Bull Run (First Manassas) on 21 July, and he later received the Congressional Medal of Honor for his heroism there in refusing to leave his post despite the wound. He served with the Army of the Potomac during the Peninsula campaign of 1862, and for his actions at Malvern Hill he was brevetted lieutenant colonel. On 8 August 1862 he was named colonel in command of the Twentieth Maine Volunteer Infantry, with ...

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Burr, Aaron (06 February 1756–14 September 1836), revolutionary soldier, U.S. senator, and vice president of the United States, was born in Newark, New Jersey, the son of Aaron Burr, a theologian and the second president of the College of New Jersey (later Princeton University), and ...

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Logan, John Alexander (09 February 1826–26 December 1886), Union general and U.S. senator, was born in Jackson County, Illinois, the son of John Logan, a physician and politician, and Elizabeth Jenkins. He was educated in local schools and at an academy in adjoining Randolph County before serving as second lieutenant in an Illinois regiment during the Mexican War, service that took him as far as Santa Fe but involved no combat. Afterward he studied law at the University of Louisville (1850–1851), won election as prosecuting attorney for Jackson and Franklin counties, Illinois, moved to Benton, Illinois, and then successfully campaigned for the Illinois legislature. At the age of twenty-six, the fiery Jacksonian Democrat won popularity as the chief proponent of legislation effectively banning blacks from Illinois. In 1855 he married Mary Simmerson Cunningham, who, well educated and vivacious, furthered his career with her charm and writing ability. The couple had three children. Prominence in the law, both in private practice and as prosecutor, and another term in the legislature (1857) prepared the way for his election to Congress in 1858....

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Schurz, Carl (02 March 1829–14 May 1906), Civil War general, U.S. senator, and secretary of the interior, was born in Liblar near Cologne, the son of Christian Schurz, a teacher and small businessman, and Marianne Jüssen. He was educated at the Marcellen Gymnasium in Cologne and at the University of Bonn, where he was strongly influenced by Professor Gottfried Kinkel, a convinced German nationalist and democrat. During the Revolution of 1848 Schurz joined Kinkel in agitating for radical democratic and republican reforms. His participation in an ill-conceived attempt to seize the arsenal at Siegburg caused him to flee to the Palatinate, where he joined the revolutionary forces. Commissioned a lieutenant, he took part in engagements at Übstadt and Bruchsal and was almost captured by the Prussians in besieged Rastatt. In danger of punishment for treason, he managed to escape through a sewer and reach safety in France....

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Walthall, Edward Cary (04 April 1831–21 April 1898), Confederate general and U.S. senator, was born in Richmond, Virginia, the son of Barrett White Walthall, a merchant, and Sally Wilkinson. When Barrett White Walthall went bankrupt in 1841, he moved his family, including ten-year-old Edward, to Holly Springs, Mississippi. The young Walthall received a traditional education at St. Thomas Hall, an Episcopal church school in Holly Springs. From his experience on the debate team, he decided to enter the law. After reading law with his brother-in-law, George R. Freedman, in Pontotoc, Mississippi, and being admitted to the bar of Mississippi in 1852 at age twenty-one, Walthall served briefly as the deputy clerk to the circuit court in Holly Springs. He then moved to Coffeeville, Mississippi, in the north central part of the state, where he entered private practice. In 1856 the people of the Tenth Judicial District of Mississippi elected Walthall district attorney. Also in 1856 he married Sophie Bridges, who died within the year. Walthall repeated this pattern of election and marriage three years later, when in 1859 the people of the Tenth District again elected him district attorney and he married his second wife, Mary Lecky Jones. Neither marriage resulted in children, although Walthall adopted the daughter of his second wife....