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Gregg, David McMurtrie (10 April 1833–07 August 1916), U.S. Army officer, diplomat, and Pennsylvania state official, was born in Huntingdon, Pennsylvania, the son of Matthew Duncan Gregg and Ellen McMurtrie (occupations unknown). He was the paternal grandson of U.S. senator Andrew Gregg and the first cousin of ...

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Kilpatrick, Hugh Judson (14 January 1836–02 December 1881), army officer and diplomat, was born near Deckertown (now Sussex), New Jersey, the son of Simon Kilpatrick, a farmer and colonel in the state militia, and Julia Wickham. Kilpatrick attended the U.S. Military Academy at West Point and was two years behind ...

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King, Rufus (26 January 1814–13 October 1876), soldier, editor, and diplomat, was born in New York City, the son of Charles King, a merchant and the ninth president of Columbia College, and Eliza Gracie. After attending the preparatory academy of Columbia, Rufus entered the U.S. Military Academy at West Point in 1829. After graduating fourth in the class of 1833, he was commissioned into the elite corps of engineers but resigned three years later to accept a position as a civil engineer with the New York & Erie Railroad. In 1839 he began a career as a newspaper editor. After two years with the ...

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Osterhaus, Peter Joseph (04 January 1823–02 January 1917), army officer and diplomat, was born in Koblenz, Germany, the son of Anton A. Osterhaus. His mother’s name is not known. After attending a military school in Berlin, he served as a gentleman volunteer in the Prussian Twenty-ninth Infantry Regiment. In 1846 he married Natilda Born; they had five children. When a wave of revolutions swept Germany in 1848, Osterhaus sided with those striving to give Germany a unified, liberal government. They failed, and many, like Osterhaus, fled to America the following year. Osterhaus settled in Belleville, in southwestern Illinois, and got a job in a dry goods store. In the next two years he moved first to Lebanon, Illinois, where he ran a general store, and then to St. Louis, Missouri, where a large German-American population made social conditions pleasant for the Osterhauses. In St. Louis he obtained employment as a bookkeeper for a hardware wholesaler....

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Porter, Horace (15 April 1837–29 May 1921), soldier, businessman, and diplomat, was born in Huntingdon, Pennsylvania, the son of David Rittenhouse Porter, a businessman, politician, and governor, and Josephine McDermott. Educated at Lawrenceville Academy and the Lawrence Scientific School at Harvard (1854–1855), he entered the U.S. Military Academy at West Point (1855), graduating third in the class of 1860. Commissioned a brevet second lieutenant in the Ordnance Branch, he remained at the academy as an artillery instructor before being assigned to the Watervliet Arsenal at Troy, New York....

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Scott, Hugh Lenox (23 September 1853–30 April 1934), soldier and diplomat, was born in Danville, Kentucky, the son of William McKendry Scott, a Presbyterian minister, and Mary Elizabeth Hodge. After William Scott’s death, the family moved, and Hugh Scott was reared in Princeton, New Jersey, attending Edgehill and Lawrenceville academies before graduating from the U.S. Military Academy in 1876. Until 1898 most of his service was on the frontier in the West, where he became a keen student of Indian customs and a leading expert on the Indian sign language. In 1880 he married Mary Merrill, daughter of General Lewis Merrill. The couple had five children....

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Sickles, Daniel Edgar (20 October 1819–03 May 1914), politician, soldier, and diplomat, was born in New York City, the son of George Garrett Sickles, a lawyer, and Susan Marsh. Young Sickles briefly attended New York University prior to entering law practice in 1840; he was admitted to the bar in 1843 and soon became affiliated with Tammany Hall, the Democratic political machine that controlled New York City....

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Smith, Walter Bedell (05 October 1895–09 August 1961), military officer, ambassador, and government official, was born in Indianapolis, Indiana, the son of William Long Smith and Ida Francis Bedell, who earned a comfortable living as silk buyers. A relative had fought in every American war since the Revolution, and all that Bedell, as he was called from childhood, ever wanted to be was an army officer. An exceptionally bright but indifferent student who trained as a machinist at vocational high school, he lacked the influence to secure an appointment to West Point. The day he turned sixteen, therefore, Smith enlisted in the Indiana National Guard. Within a year he was made company sergeant, and in 1916 he accompanied the expedition to Mexico....

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Torbert, Alfred Thomas Archimedes (01 July 1833–29 August 1880), soldier and diplomat, was born in Georgetown, Delaware, the son of Jonathan R. Torbert, a farmer, bank official, and Methodist preacher, and Catharine Milby. He received a local education, followed by matriculation at the U.S. Military Academy in 1851. At West Point, where his foppish mannerisms won him the nickname “Daisy,” Torbert proved to be a mediocre student. At graduation in July 1855 he ranked twenty-first in his class of thirty-four cadets and was posted to the Fifth U.S. Infantry. Over the next three years he campaigned against Native Americans in Texas, Missouri, the New Mexico Territory, and Florida; in 1857 he accompanied Colonel ...