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André, John (02 May 1750–02 October 1780), British officer and spy, was born in London, England, the son of Anthony André, a merchant, and Marie Louise Girardot. His early schooling was with a tutor, the Reverend Thomas Newcomb, and he may have attended St. Paul’s School. In his teens André studied mathematics and military drawing at the University of Geneva, giving vent to his romantic temperament by dreaming of a military career. He was rudely brought back to reality by his merchant father when he was called home to work in the countinghouse before he completed a degree. Despising the family business, he nevertheless labored at it manfully for a number of years. After his father died on 14 April 1769, he felt a particular obligation as the eldest son to continue the business, even though his father had left him financially independent, with a small fortune of £5,000. In the summer of 1769 he joined a Lichfield literary group presided over by Anna Seward, a poet. The group included a young lady named Honora Sneyd, for whom he developed a passion. They became engaged and courted for a year and a half before she suddenly rejected him for another man at a Christmas party in 1770. Shattered by this betrayal, André revived his earlier ambition to become a soldier and in early 1771 bought a second lieutenant’s commission in the 23d Regiment, Royal Welsh Fusiliers. Later he purchased a first lieutenancy in the same regiment....

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Bentley, Elizabeth Terrill (01 January 1908–03 December 1963), Communist party activist and government witness, was born in New Milford, Connecticut, the daughter of Charles Prentiss Bentley, a newspaper editor and department store manager, and Mary Burrill, a schoolteacher. After growing up in small towns in Connecticut, New York, and Pennsylvania, Bentley enrolled in Vassar College and in 1930 received an undergraduate degree in English. While at Vassar, she became involved in a variety of Socialist causes but did not demonstrate any interest in more radical left-wing ideas. For two years following graduation, she taught languages at the Foxcroft School in Middleburg, Virginia, but left in 1932 for Columbia University, where she earned her M.A. in Italian in 1935. While working on her graduate degree, she accepted a fellowship that took her to the University of Florence for the 1933–1934 academic year....

Article

Birch, John (28 May 1918–25 August 1945), Baptist missionary and military officer, was born John Morrison Birch in Landaur, India, the son of George S. Birch and Ethel Ellis Birch. Both parents were Methodist missionaries under the auspices of the Presbyterian Church, U.S.A. George Birch was also an agricultural professor at Ewing Christian College, Allahabad, India, while Ethel Birch tutored English there and conducted women's Bible classes nearby. In 1920 the family returned to the United States. George Birch became a fruit farmer in Vineland, New Jersey, where John Birch first went to school. In 1930 the family, by then including seven children, moved to Rome, Georgia, where Birch attended high school. After graduating at the head of his class, he entered Mercer University; there, he deepened his religious convictions and evangelical passion and graduated magna cum laude in 1939. He completed a two-year course at the Bible Baptist Seminary in Fort Worth, Texas, in one year and then left in July 1940 for China, sponsored by a World's Fundamentalist Baptist Missionary Fellowship....

Article

Dulles, Allen Welsh (07 April 1893–29 January 1969), author and third director of the Central Intelligence Agency (1953-1961), author and third director of the Central Intelligence Agency (1953–1961), was born in Watertown, New York, the son of Presbyterian minister Allen Macy Dulles and Edith Foster. In 1914 Dulles graduated from Princeton University, where he was elected to Phi Beta Kappa. After graduation he taught English in India for a year, circumnavigating the globe on his way back to the United States, where he returned to Princeton to complete an M.A. in international law. Joining the State Department’s Foreign Service in 1916, Dulles was assigned first to Vienna and then, when the First World War broke out, to Bern. In Bern he gained his first exposure to the world of espionage, for among his consular duties was the task of establishing contacts with Austro-Hungarian and Balkan factions known to be opposed to communism....

Article

Fuchs, Klaus Emil Julius (29 December 1911–28 January 1988), physicist and spy, was born in Russelheim, near Frankfurt, Germany, the son of Emil Fuchs, a Lutheran minister, and Else Wagner. Klaus Fuchs studied mathematics and physics at Leipzig University (1928–1931) and continued his undergraduate studies in physics at Kiel University (1931–1933). As a student at Kiel University, he joined, first, the Social Democratic party and, in 1932, the German Communist party. After the Reichstag fire in February 1933, and the attendant Nazi reprisals against the political Left, Fuchs went into hiding in Berlin for a few months, then migrated to Britain in September 1933. He continued his studies in physics at Bristol University, where he secured a position as a research assistant to Neville Mott. In his research Fuchs applied quantum physics to questions of the electrical resistance of metallic films, working with Bernard Lovell, who was later knighted for his achievements in physics. In 1937 Fuchs was granted a Ph.D. in physics at Bristol. A paper that resulted from his doctoral research, “A Quantum Mechanical Calculation of the Elastic Constants of Monovalent Metals,” appeared in the ...

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Helms, Richard McGarrah (30 March 1913–23 October 2002), U.S. intelligence director, was born in Saint Davids, Pennsylvania, near Philadelphia, the son of Herman Helms, a district manager for the Aluminum Company of America, and mother Marion McGarrah. His maternal grandfather, Gates McGarrah, was a leading international banker. Helms was educated at schools both in New Jersey and in Switzerland and Germany. As a young student in Europe, Helms became conversant in French and German. He returned to the United States to attend Williams College in Massachusetts where in 1935 he graduated magna cum laude, double‐majoring in English literature and history. Elected to Phi Beta Kappa, he served as class president and as editor of the college newspaper and yearbook, and he was voted “most likely to succeed” and “most respected” by his undergraduate peers....

Article

Means, Gaston Bullock (11 July 1879–12 December 1938), spy, swindler, and detective, was born in Blackwelder’s Spring, North Carolina, the son of William Gaston Means, an attorney, and Corallie Bullock. Means grew up in Concord, North Carolina, in a family that had lost most of its considerable wealth during the Civil War. He left the University of North Carolina in 1900, early in his third year, and served for two years as the superintendent of the elementary schools in Stanly County, adjacent to Concord. In 1902 he took a job as a salesman for the Cannon textile mills, living in New York City and traveling widely....

Article

Philbrick, Herbert A. (11 May 1915–16 August 1993), anticommunist activist and undercover informant for the FBI, was born and raised in Boston, Massachusetts, the son of Guy Philbrick, a railroad trainman, and Alice May Shapleigh. In 1938 Philbrick graduated from the Lincoln Technical Institute of Northeastern University. He went to work as a sales representative for Holmes Direct Mail Service, in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and married Eva Gertrude Luscombe (divorced in 1967); they had six children. In 1940 Philbrick, as he organized and chaired the Cambridge Youth Council, became aware that his communist members were actually directing the policies of the group he supposedly chaired, and he took his suspicions to the Boston office of the FBI. The Bureau asked him to report to them, giving him the informant code name of George Lockwood. To gather more information for the Bureau, he joined the Young Communist League in 1942 and finally the Communist Party, as a secret member, in 1944. He was able to contact or penetrate a large number of the communist-influenced or -controlled groups that countersubversives like Philbrick called the Red Network. Meanwhile, he had become the assistant advertising director for the New England division of Paramount Theaters, a position he held from 1942 to 1949....