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Temple, John (Apr. 1732–17 November 1798), British imperial official, was born in Boston, Massachusetts, the son of Robert Temple, a colonial entrepreneur, and Mehitable Nelson. His exact date of birth is unknown, but he was baptized on 16 April 1732. He grew up on the family “Ten Hills” estate near Boston; there is no evidence that he was raised by his Grenville relatives in England. Temple did spend much of his early adulthood in London, seeking a lucrative appointment through Richard Grenville, Earl Temple, and his brother George Grenville, later to be prime minister. In 1761 he was named surveyor general of customs for the northern district of America, with supervision of all the customs officers from Newfoundland to New Jersey, and lieutenant governor of New Hampshire, a position with neither pay nor duties “that was created purposely,” he said, “to give me Rank in that Country.”...

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van Curler, Arent (1620– July 1667), colonial official and diplomat, was born in Nykerck, Gelderland, the Netherlands, the son of Hendrick van Curler and Nelle Gerrits. His parents were from upper-class families involved in politics and trade. Nothing is known of his childhood education. His great uncle Kiliaen Van Rensselaer described him as “still young and inexperienced” when he asked ...