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Cadwallader Colden. Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine (B04876).

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Colden, Cadwallader (07 February 1689–20 September 1776), physician, natural scientist, and lieutenant governor of New York, was born of Scottish parents in Ireland, where his mother (name unknown) was visiting. His father was the Reverend Alexander Colden of Duns, Scotland. Colden graduated in 1705 from the University of Edinburgh. He then studied medicine in London but, lacking the money to establish a medical practice in Great Britain, migrated to Philadelphia in 1710. Welcomed by his mother’s sister Elizabeth Hill, Colden established himself as a merchant and physician. He returned to Scotland briefly in 1715, where in November of that year he married Alice Chrystie of Kelso, Scotland. After their marriage they returned to Philadelphia; the couple had eleven children. During a 1717 visit to New York, Colden was persuaded by Governor ...

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Jones, Noble (1702–02 November 1775), carpenter, doctor, and political official, was born in Lambeth, County Surrey, England. The names of his parents are unknown. Jones married Sarah Hack before 1723. They had four children, one of whom died in infancy. The extent of Jones’s education remains unknown, but he acquired some skills as a physician, carpenter, architect, and surveyor by the early 1730s. He came to Georgia in 1733 as one of its first settlers. He worked diligently to succeed at his venture, and his many skills provided opportunities for profit and prominence. Jones helped construct the first buildings in Savannah, Georgia’s colonial capital. He assumed greater responsibilities upon the death of the colony’s two leading carpenters and physician in the summer of 1733. From 1748 to 1755 Jones formed a medical partnership with his eldest son, ...

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Mazzei, Philip (25 December 1730–19 March 1816), physician, merchant, and agent of Virginia during the American Revolution, was born Filippo Mazzei in Poggio-a-Caiano, Italy, the son of Domenico Mazzei, a tradesman, and Maria Elisabetta di Guissepe del Conte. He studied medicine in nearby Florence, and in 1755 he joined the practice of a Dr. Salinas in Smyrna, Turkey. By year’s end he took passage for England as a ship’s doctor. Shortly after his arrival in London in 1756, he began an import-export business that enjoyed moderate success for the next sixteen years....