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Adams, Numa Pompilius Garfield (26 February 1885–29 August 1940), physician and medical educator, was born in Delaplane, Virginia. Little is known about Adams’s family and early life. He attended a country school run by his uncle Robert Adams. Adams received additional instruction and inspiration from his grandmother Amanda, a midwife who shared with him the secrets of herbal medicine. When Adams was thirteen, his family moved to Steelton, Pennsylvania. Soon Adams taught himself how to read music and purchased a used cornet, which he taught himself to play, a skill that later helped him pay for his education....

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Angell, James Rowland (08 May 1869–04 March 1949), academic psychologist and fourteenth president of Yale University, was born in Burlington, Vermont, the son of James Burrill Angell, president of the University of Vermont and later the president of the University of Michigan, and Sarah Swope Caswell, daughter of ...

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Bryan, William Lowe (11 November 1860–21 November 1955), philosopher, psychologist, and educator, was born William Julian Bryan on a farm near Bloomington, Indiana, the son of John Bryan, a Presbyterian minister, and Eliza Jane Philips. In 1876 he entered the preparatory department of Indiana University in Bloomington, which served as the local high school, and the next year he matriculated as a university student. As an undergraduate he developed his skills in public speaking and helped to revive the ...

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Cleveland, Emeline Horton (22 September 1829–08 December 1878), surgeon, medical professor, and dean at the Woman's Medical College of Pennsylvania, surgeon, medical professor, and dean at the Woman’s Medical College of Pennsylvania, was born in Ashford, Connecticut, the daughter of Chauncey Horton and Amanda Chaffee, farmers. In 1831 her family settled in a remote farming area in Madison County, New York. Cleveland received her initial education from private tutors engaged by her father at a school he fashioned on the Horton property....

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Fred, Edwin Broun (22 March 1887–16 January 1981), bacteriologist and university president, was born in Middleburg, Virginia, the son of Samuel Rogers Fred, a landowner, and Catherine “Kate” Conway Broun. Fred’s interest in science began as a boy in Virginia. Having completed his B.S. at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute (VPI) in 1907, Fred stayed on to complete his M.S. at the same institution in 1908. While pursuing this first phase of graduate work, he held an appointment as an assistant in bacteriology. For his doctoral work Fred went abroad in 1909, getting his Ph.D. from the University of Göttingen in Germany in 1911. This was a natural decision given that the virtues of German graduate education were extolled by many at VPI, including bacteriology professor Meade Ferguson, who himself received a Ph.D. at Göttingen. Fred studied under some of the leading scientists of the day, including bacteriologist Alfred Koch....

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Marshall, Louis (07 October 1773– April 1866), physician and college president, was born Lewis Marshall on the family estate, “Oak Hill,” in Fauquier County, Virginia, the son of Colonel Thomas Marshall, a military leader and surveyor, and Mary Randolph Keith. Louis, the eleventh of fifteen children, was a brother of Chief Justice ...

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William S. Middleton. Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine (B019548).

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Middleton, William Shainline (07 January 1890–09 September 1975), medical educator and administrator, was born in Norristown, Pennsylvania, the son of Daniel Shephard Middleton, a grocer and wholesale confectioner, and Ann Sophia Shainline. He received an M.D. from the University of Pennsylvania in 1911. While at Pennsylvania, he developed an interest in the history of his profession through contact with John G. Clark, professor of gynecology, and David Riesman, professor of clinical medicine and later professor of the history of medicine....

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Parrish, Edward (31 May 1822–09 September 1872), pharmacist, teacher, and college president, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of Joseph Parrish, a prominent physician, and Susanna Cox. He attended the Friends’ School and then was apprenticed to his pharmacist brother, Dillwyn Parrish. During his apprenticeship he attended the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, graduating in 1842. In 1843 Parrish opened his own drugstore in Philadelphia. In 1848 he married Margaret Hunt, with whom he had five children....

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Russell, Harry Luman (12 March 1866–11 April 1954), bacteriologist and university administrator, was born in Poynette, Wisconsin, the son of E. Fred Russell, a physician, and Lucinda Estella Waldron. In many ways the career of Harry L. Russell recapitulated the history of science in modern America. In 1890, as a young University of Wisconsin graduate in biology, he followed the path of many hundreds of other budding professionals in seeking advanced training in Europe. His field, the “hot” new science of bacteriology, led him to the laboratories of the masters, Robert Koch and Louis Pasteur, and afterward to the Zoological Station in Naples. There, following Koch’s early lead, he did researches aimed at raising bacteriology to the status of a fully developed independent discipline. To his mind the new field deserved to be more than just an adjunct of medicine, and the remainder of his research career would be dedicated to that pursuit....

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Sanford, Edmund Clark (10 November 1859–22 November 1924), college president and research psychologist, was born in Oakland, California, the son of Edmund P. Sanford, a druggist, and Jennie E. Clark. Sanford earned an A.B. at the University of California in Berkeley in 1883. After a year of teaching at Oahu College in Honolulu, he enrolled at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore and earned a Ph.D. in experimental psychology in 1888. During his years in Baltimore he came under the influence of ...

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Talbot, Israel Tisdale (29 October 1829–02 July 1899), homeopathic physician and educator, was born in Sharon, Massachusetts, the son of Josiah Talbot, Jr., and Mary Richards, farmers. Resisting family pressure to become a farmer, he left Sharon in September 1844 for Baltimore, where a sister lived; here he conducted a home school for neighborhood children. Returning to New England in July 1845, he taught at various schools and in 1850 graduated from Worcester Academy in Massachusetts....

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Wearn, Joseph T. (15 February 1893–26 September 1984), physician, was born in Charlotte, North Carolina, the son of Joseph Henry Wearn, a manufacturer of interior woodwork, and Ann Treloar. Wearn received his secondary education in the Charlotte public schools and then entered Davidson College in Davidson, North Carolina. He did well in his studies, achieving membership in Phi Beta Kappa, and graduated at the age of twenty in 1913. His experience at Davidson, however, was not entirely pleasant, for the school’s Presbyterian dogmatism offended him and inspired in him a passion for free speech and dialogue. Wearn entered the Harvard Medical School in 1913 and received his M.D. in 1917. At Harvard he was impressed by the free exchange between students and professors; he also admired professors such as ...

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Williams, Nathaniel (25 August 1675–10 January 1738), physician and educator, was born in Boston, Massachusetts, the son of Nathaniel Williams, a deacon, and Mary Oliver Shrimpton. He entered Harvard College ranked ninth out of the sixteen students in his class and graduated in 1693. He took his master’s degree at Harvard in 1698 and was ordained the same year. His first preaching assignment was in a non-conformist church in Barbados where he wed Anne Bradstreet (date unknown). Of their eight children, only two daughters reached adulthood. On 17 January 1700 Williams returned to Boston, where he was retained by several prominent families as a private tutor. By 1703 he had become assistant in the Boston Latin School, becoming its headmaster in 1708....