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Durand, Élie Magloire (25 January 1794–14 August 1873), pharmacist and botanist, was born in Mayenne, France, the son of André Durand, a recorder of deeds; his mother’s name is unknown. After immigrating to the United States, he anglicized his first name to Elias. Durand was educated locally at the collegiate school, displaying an aptitude for chemistry. After deciding to become a pharmacist, he began a four-year apprenticeship in 1808 with a distinguished pharmacist and scientist; he then continued his education in Paris, attending the lectures of such notable scientists as Louis Jacques Thenard, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, and Louis Lefèvre-Gineau. After receiving his commission as an assistant pharmacist (1813), he served with the Fifth Corps of Napoleon’s army, seeing action at the battles of Lützen, Bautzen, Hanau, Katzbach, and Leipzig....

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Sutherland, Earl W. (19 November 1915–09 March 1974), biochemist and pharmacologist, was born Earl Wilbur Sutherland, Jr., in Burlingame, Kansas, the son of Earl W. Sutherland, a merchant, and Edith M. Hartshorn. Raised in a rural area, Sutherland fished, hunted, and acquired a love of nature early in his life. While receiving his secondary education in local schools, he also acquired a lifelong love of baseball, football, and tennis. Sutherland’s desire to study medicine and become a scientist was stimulated by ...