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Biggs, Hermann Michael (29 September 1859–28 June 1923), pathologist, bacteriologist, physician, and public health official, was born in Trumansburg, New York, the son of Joseph Hunt Biggs and Melissa Pratt. Dr. Biggs married Frances M. Richardson, of Hornellsville, New York, in 1898; they had two children. Biggs received his primary education in Ithaca, New York, and matriculated into Cornell University, where he received the bachelor of arts degree in 1882. From Cornell Biggs went on to medical school at the Bellevue Hospital Medical College, where he received his M.D. the following year. He spent the next eighteen months (1882–1883) in the postgraduate course at Bellevue, where he served as a rotating intern and resident physician. Upon completion of this course, Biggs traveled to Europe and spent the next two years (1883–1885) studying bacteriology in Berlin and Griefswald. When he returned to New York City in 1886, Biggs was made director of the newly opened Carnegie Bacteriology Laboratory of the Bellevue Hospital. His rise in academic rank was meteoric; appointed a lecturer in pathology in 1886, Biggs was made a full professor of pathology in 1889, professor of materia medica (pharmacology) in 1892, professor of therapeutics in 1898, and professor of medicine in 1912....

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Councilman, William Thomas (01 January 1854–26 May 1933), pathologist, was born in Pikesville, Maryland, the son of John F. Councilman, a physician and farmer, and Christiana Drummond Mitchell. Councilman grew up on a busy farm where he began cultivating his powers of observation and an interest in plants. He attended St. John’s College in Annapolis, Maryland, for his freshman and sophomore years but then left to engage in jobbing coffee and in other business enterprises. Around 1876 Councilman decided to go into medicine and enrolled in the University of Maryland. While there he lived at home, dissected animals, and built up a large collection of skulls and other bones. He received his M.D. in 1878....

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Delafield, Francis (03 August 1841–17 July 1915), physician, was born in New York City, the son of Edward Delafield, a physician, and Julia Floyd. After graduating from Yale University (A.B., 1860), he entered the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York and was awarded the M.D. in 1863. He then went to Europe to continue his studies and was strongly influenced by the theories of Rudolf Virchow, author of ...

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Ewing, James (25 December 1866–16 May 1943), pathologist, was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, the son of Julia Ruppert Hufnagel and Thomas Ewing, a judge. Ewing was attending Central High School in Pittsburgh when, at the age of fourteen, he contracted osteomyelitis of the femur, which confined him to bed for two years. While ill he was tutored in Greek and Latin. He entered and won a local contest by providing the largest number of words compounded from the letters in the word ...

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Fenger, Christian (03 November 1840–07 March 1902), surgeon, pathologist, and teacher, was born on the Brejninggaard estate in North Jutland, Denmark, the son of Hans Frederik Fenger and Frederikke Mathilde Fjelstrup, prosperous farmers. An uncle, Carl Emil Fenger, a physician and faculty member at the University of Copenhagen, may have influenced Fenger’s ultimate choice of profession. First, however, young Fenger entered the Polytechnic Institute in Copenhagen to study engineering. After the first year his father urged him to go into medicine, and so he entered the university’s medical school, obtaining his license to practice in 1867 and his M.D. in 1874, with a thesis on cancer of the stomach....

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Flexner, Simon (25 March 1863–02 May 1946), pathologist and bacteriologist, was born in Louisville, Kentucky, the son of well-educated Jewish immigrants Morris Flexner, a merchant and salesman, and Esther Abraham, a seamstress. Simon Flexner had little formal education. As a child he was an indifferent student and a mischief maker. He quit school in the sixth grade and held a variety of menial jobs. At age sixteen he nearly succumbed to typhoid fever, and after he recovered his attitude toward education changed. He became a pharmacy apprentice at Vincent Davis’s drugstore for two years and attended two three-month courses of lectures at the Louisville College of Pharmacy, surprising his family by finishing first in his class in 1882. Upon graduating he clerked for eight years in the drugstore owned by his eldest brother, Jacob. Simon lived over the store, made up for his educational deficits by studying math and science from his brothers’ school books, took up botanizing and microscopy, and organized the Louisville Microscopical Club. He taught himself histology and acquired an interest in pathology through local doctors, who gathered to converse in Jacob’s store and brought him specimens to analyze. Simon Flexner hoped to open his own pathological laboratory in Louisville, so he entered the University of Louisville School of Medicine and earned an M.D. in 1889. At the urging of his younger brother Abraham, who later became known for writing the Carnegie Institution report on American medical schools, Flexner enrolled in the postgraduate course in pathology at the Johns Hopkins University....

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Fuller, Solomon Carter (11 August 1872–16 January 1953), neuropathologist and psychiatrist, was born in Monrovia, Liberia, the son of Solomon Carter Fuller, a coffee planter and Liberian government official, and Anna Ursala James. His father, son of a repatriated former American slave, was able to provide a private education for his children at a school he established on his prosperous plantation. In the summer of 1889 young Solomon Fuller left home to return to the country where his grandfather had once been held in bondage. He sought higher education at Livingstone College in Salisbury, North Carolina, a college for black students founded ten years earlier....

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Gardner, Leroy Upson (09 December 1888–24 October 1946), physician, was born in New Britain, Connecticut, the son of Irving Isaac Gardner, a real estate and insurance broker, and Inez Baldwin Upson. As a boy, Gardner attended the public schools of Meriden, Connecticut. He then went to Yale University in nearby New Haven, receiving a B.A. in 1912. He proceeded to the Yale School of Medicine and graduated in 1914 with an M.D. Gardner pursued an interest in pathology by accepting a three-year internship at Boston City Hospital, where he worked under the guidance of ...

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Gerhard, William Wood (23 July 1809–28 April 1872), physician and pathologist, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of William Gerhard, a hatter, and Sarah Wood. His parents were Moravians. After graduation from Dickinson College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, in 1826, Gerhard received his medical degree from the University of Pennsylvania in 1830. His thesis on endermic medication, based on nearly 200 cases that he had observed as a resident pupil in the Philadelphia Almshouse, appeared in the ...

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Goldblatt, Harry (14 March 1891–06 January 1977), pathologist and medical researcher, was born in Muscatine, Iowa, the son of Lithuanian immigrants Philip Goldblatt, a merchant, and Jenny Spitz. When he was six, Goldblatt’s family relocated to Montreal, Quebec, Canada, where his father developed a thriving business supplying coal, wood, and ice. In 1908 Goldblatt entered McGill University intending to pursue a career in mining engineering. Guided by Carrie Derrick, the first female professor at McGill University, Goldblatt developed an interest in biology and decided to study medicine. He received his medical degree in 1916 from McGill. After a year as a surgical resident at the Royal Victoria Hospital in Montreal, Goldblatt, who had retained his U.S. citizenship, enlisted in the U.S. Army Medical Reserve Corps, and served as head of orthopedics and fractures at American hospitals in France and Germany....

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Arthur Emanuel Hertzler Courtesy of the Clendening History of Medicine Library, University of Kansas Medical Center.

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Hertzler, Arthur Emanuel (25 July 1870–12 September 1946), physician, surgeon, and pathologist, was born in the Mennonite community of West Point, Iowa, the son of Daniel Hertzler, a farmer, and Hannah Krehbiel, the first Mennonite child born west of the Mississippi River. Hertzler’s parents grew to hold divergent religious beliefs, separating their family, according to Hertzler, “as completely broken as it would have been by divorce,” and leaving Hertzler a lifelong skeptic about organized religion....

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Hinton, William Augustus (15 December 1883–08 August 1959), physician and clinical pathologist, was born in Chicago, Illinois, the son of Augustus Hinton, a railroad porter, and Marie Clark; both parents were former slaves. His formal education was completed in Kansas City, Kansas, where his parents moved before his first birthday. After attending the University of Kansas from 1900 to 1902, he transferred to Harvard College, where he received a B.S. in 1905....

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Kinyoun, Joseph James (25 November 1860–14 February 1919), pathologist, was born in East Bend, North Carolina, the son of John Hendricks Kinyoun, a physician, and Elizabeth Conrad. Reared in Centre View, Missouri, Kinyoun first studied medicine as an apprentice to his father. In 1880 he enrolled for a year’s course of lectures in St. Louis Medical College, after which he attended Bellevue Hospital Medical College of New York University, where he received the M.D. in 1882....

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Landsteiner, Karl (14 June 1868–26 June 1943), immunologist and pathologist, was born in Vienna, Austria, the son of Leopold Landsteiner, a journalist and newspaper publisher, and Fanny Hess. He received an M.D. from the University of Vienna in 1891, then spent three years studying chemistry at the Universities of Zurich, Würzburg, and Munich. In 1894 he returned to the University of Vienna and for two years worked as an assistant in the Second Medical University Clinic and the First Surgical University Clinic. In 1896 he became an assistant at the University of Vienna’s Institute of Hygiene and began experimenting with the effects of immune blood serum on bacteria cultures. His interest in the nascent field of immunology led him to transfer two years later to the Institute of Pathological Anatomy because its director encouraged him to pursue his work in immunology....

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Larson, Leonard Winfield (22 May 1898–30 September 1974), pathologist, was born in Clarkfield, Minnesota, the son of John Larson, a pharmacist, and Ida Anderson. After graduating from St. Olaf Academy in Northfield, Minnesota, he matriculated at the University of Minnesota with the intention of becoming a dentist, but after receiving a B.S. in 1918 he decided instead to pursue a career as a physician. He received an M.D. from Minnesota in 1922 and immediately opened a medical practice in Northwood, Iowa. The practice did not thrive, largely because he spent most of his time traveling from one house call to another. In 1923 he returned to the university to conduct postgraduate research in clinical pathology. That same year he married Ordelia Rebecca Miller; they had two children....

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Longcope, Warfield Theobald (29 March 1877–25 April 1953), pathologist and educator, was born in Baltimore, Maryland, the son of George von S. Longcope and Ruth Theobald, whose occupations are unknown. After receiving his A.B. from Johns Hopkins University in 1897, he enrolled in the university’s medical school, at the time the only one in the United States that required its students to ground themselves in laboratory work as well as the bedside examination of patients. He received his M.D. in 1901 and immediately accepted a position as resident pathologist at Philadelphia’s Pennsylvania Hospital....

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David Y. Cooper and Michelle E. Osborn

MacCallum, William George (18 April 1874–03 February 1944), pathologist, was born in Dunnesville, Ontario, Canada, the son of George Alexander MacCallum, a physician, and Florence Octavia Eakins, a musician. Educated at home until age nine, and then at the public lower school and high school in Dunnesville, MacCallum enrolled in 1890 at the University of Toronto. He graduated in 1894 with a B.A. in the classics. Having developed an interest in parasites through the influence of a biology professor, he then entered Johns Hopkins Medical School, from which he received an M.D. in 1897. During the summer of 1897, while studying the malarial parasites in the blood of a crow, MacCallum identified the “flagellated form of the avian parasite as the agent of sexual conjugation.” This discovery led to later work in the reproductive cycle of the human malarial parasite. On completion of his internship in 1898, MacCallum became an assistant in the Johns Hopkins pathological laboratory of ...

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Mallory, Frank Burr (12 November 1862–27 September 1941), physician, was born in Cleveland, Ohio, the son of George Burr Mallory, a sailor and ship’s captain, and Anna Faragher. He attended Harvard College (A.B., 1886; A.M., 1890) and the Harvard Medical School (M.D., 1890). In 1891 he joined the pathological laboratory at the Boston City Hospital as assistant to ...

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Martland, Harrison Stanford (10 September 1883–01 May 1954), pathologist, was born in Newark, New Jersey, the son of William Henry Martland, a physician, and Ida Carlyle Bucklish. He received a B.S. from Western Maryland College in 1901 and an M.D. from Columbia University in 1905. Martland interned for eighteen months at New York City Hospital, also known as Metropolitan Hospital. In 1907–1908 he was assistant pathologist at the Russell Sage Institute of Pathology, a research division of the Metropolitan Hospital laboratory....