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Lewis, Warren Harmon (17 June 1870–03 July 1964), anatomist, embryologist, and cell physiologist, was born in Suffield, Connecticut, the son of John Lewis, a lawyer, and Adelaide Harmon. Early in his life Lewis’s family moved to Chicago, where he began his education in the public schools of Oak Bank. From 1886 until 1889 he attended the Chicago Manual Training School. While Lewis was a teenager, his mother stimulated his interest in anatomy when she gave him a book by the famous anatomist Henry Gray....


Franklin Paine Mall. Courtesy of the Clendening History of Medicine Library, University of Kansas Medical Center.


Mall, Franklin Paine (28 September 1862–17 November 1917), embryologist and anatomist, was born near Belle Plaine, Iowa, the son of Franz Mall, a farmer, and Louise Christine Miller, both natives of Germany. Mall’s mother died when he was ten years old, and his father remarried a woman who was unaffectionate toward Franklin. As a consequence, Mall had a difficult, unhappy youth and could not find an outlet for his creative mind. Mall’s whole attitude was changed by his boarding school teacher, Jack McCarthy, who showed Mall that the source of his disdain for school was not the subjects themselves, but rather the method by which they were taught, which stressed memorization without comprehension. McCarthy’s strong influence on Mall was evident in Mall’s later attempts to reform university science teaching....