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Kellogg, John Harvey (26 February 1852–14 December 1943), physician, surgeon, and health reformer, was born in rural Livingston County, Michigan, the son of John Preston Kellogg and Anne Stanley, farmers. In 1852 Kellogg’s parents accepted the religious teachings that led to the organization of the Seventh-day Adventist church in 1863. This decision had a marked influence on their son’s life. By 1856 the family had resettled in Battle Creek, Michigan. Part of the proceeds from the sale of their farm was used to relocate the infant Adventist publishing plant from Rochester, New York, to Battle Creek, where Kellogg’s father now operated a small store and broom shop....

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Nichols, Thomas Low (1815–1901), hydrotherapist, health educator, and writer, was born in Orford, New Hampshire. His parents, whose names are unknown, were probably farmers. After growing up in New England, he enrolled in Dartmouth Medical College in 1834, only to drop out without earning a degree. Over the next six years he pursued journalism, submitting columns to the ...

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Trall, Russell Thacher (05 August 1812–23 September 1877), hydropathic physician and health reformer, was born in Vernon, Connecticut. His parents’ names and occupations are unknown. Trall spent his boyhood in western New York, where he worked on a farm before illness led him to seek medical treatment. Dissatisfied with the result and determined to improve his health, Trall studied with a local preceptor and in 1835 received an M.D. after completing a course of medical lectures at Albany Medical College. He married Rebecca (her maiden name and the date of their marriage are unknown); they had one child....