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Bettelheim, Bruno (28 August 1903–13 March 1990), therapist, educator, and author, was born in Vienna, Austria, the son of Anton Bettelheim, a lumber merchant, and Pauline Seidler. Following his father’s death in 1926, he dropped out of the university to take over the family firm. Although successful in business, he re-enrolled ten years later to become, in February 1938, one of the last Jews to obtain a Ph.D. from Vienna University before World War II. While he was a philosophy student, aesthetics was his main subject, but he also studied psychology under ...

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Burnham, William Henry (03 December 1855–25 June 1941), professor of psychology, was born in Dunbarton, New Hampshire, the son of Samuel Burnham, a farmer and proprietor of the general store, and Hannah Dane. He entered Harvard in 1878, following three years of teaching while he prepared for the university; he graduated with honors in 1882. He taught at Wittenberg College (Springfield, Ohio) and at the Potsdam (N.Y.) Normal School before enrolling in graduate studies in psychology at Johns Hopkins University in 1886. At Hopkins he was part of a group of students of ...

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Keller, Fred S. (02 January 1899–02 February 1996), psychologist and educator, was born Fred Simmons Keller on a farm in Rural Grove, New York, the son of Vrooman Barney Keller, a salesman, and Minnie Vanderveer Simmons Keller. Keller's early education was disrupted by his family's frequent relocations, prompting him to drop out of high school. He then worked as a messenger boy and telegraph operator for the Western Union Telegraph Company in Saranac Lake, New York. In 1918 he enlisted in the U.S. Army, where he served in the field artillery at Camp Jackson, South Carolina. During World War I he was first stationed in France, where he experienced combat, then he was sent to Germany with the Army of Occupation. In 1919 Keller left the army with the rank of sergeant, and in September of that year he returned to high school at Goddard Seminary in Barre, Vermont, on an athletic scholarship for football. In the fall of 1920 he gained admittance to Tufts College (now University), where under the tutelage of Robert C. Givler he became interested in psychology and philosophy. In response to his poor performance, Keller left and worked a year for the Andover Press in Andover, Massachusetts. He then returned to Tufts and majored in psychology, graduating with a bachelors degree in 1926....

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Kessen, William (18 January 1925–13 February 1999), psychologist, educator, and historian, was born in Key West, Florida, the only child of Maria Lord Kessen, a third generation Key Wester, and Herman Kessen of Georgia, a ship's engineer with the Peninsular and Occidental Steamship line. The family moved to Fort Lauderdale when Kessen was ten; he graduated from high school at the precocious age of sixteen. The first in his family to attend college, Kessen pursued a variety of interests at the University of Florida, including history, acting, and radio announcing, but his undergraduate studies were interrupted by the outbreak of World War II....

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Donald A. Riley and Mark R. Rosenzweig

Krech, David (27 March 1909–14 July 1977), professor of psychology, was born Yitzhok-Eizik Krechevsky in a small village in Russia, the son of Joseph Krechevsky, a salesman, and Sarah Rabinowitz. At the age of four Krech accompanied his family to the United States, where they settled in New London, Connecticut. Krech took to schooling, was a good student, and, according to his autobiography, soon became the “most educated American” in his family. In addition to the regular fare, he spent an hour a day in Hebrew School, where he learned some Hebrew and learned to read and write in Yiddish. His love of the Hebrew language and its literature endured throughout his life and remained long after he had rejected all formal religion....

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Martin, Everett Dean (05 July 1880–10 May 1941), social psychologist, social philosopher, and adult educator, was born in Jacksonville, Illinois, the son of Buker E. Martin, a tobacconist, and Mollie Field. Martin earned his B.A. from Illinois College in Jacksonville in 1904. In 1907 he graduated from McCormick Theological Seminary and was ordained as a Congregational minister. That same year he married Esther W. Kirk; they had three daughters. Martin held pastorates in Lombard, Illinois (1906–1908), Dixon, Illinois (1908–1910), and Des Moines, Iowa, where he was a minister of the First Unitarian Church (1910–1914). In 1915 he divorced his wife, married Persis E. Rowell, and, as result of his marital problems, was forced to resign from the ministry. He had one son with Rowell, but this marriage also ended in divorce. In 1931 he married his third wife, Daphne Crane Drake....

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Roback, A. A. (19 June 1890–05 June 1965), psychologist, educator, and linguist, was born Abraham Aaron Roback in Goniondz, in what is now Poland, the son of Isaac Roback, a tailor, and Leba (maiden name unknown). He was raised in Montreal, Canada, from the age of two. Roback developed an early interest in comparative linguistics, mastering French, Greek, and Latin by the time he was thirteen years old and soon adding German, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Arabic. He attended McGill University, where he earned an A.B. with honors in 1912, winning the Prince of Wales Medal for exceptional scholarship. He received an M.A. from Harvard University in 1913 for a thesis specializing in psychology, having been denied the opportunity to do interdisciplinary work by his professors. Roback spent a year at Princeton as a Traveling Fellow in 1916–1917. He received a Ph.D. from Harvard in 1917; he wrote his dissertation, ...

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Titchener, Edward Bradford (11 January 1867–03 August 1927), psychologist and educator, was born in Chichester, Sussex, England, the son of Alice Field Habin and John Bradford Titchener. Titchener’s father died when he was quite young, but even before that Titchener was sent to live with his barrister grandfather Edward Titchener in Chichester, where he could get a good education. Titchener attended the Chichester Prebendal School and Malvern College before going to Brasenose College, Oxford. Titchener was considered the best of his generation at Brasenose. After graduation with a bachelor’s degree in 1889, he spent a year working in the experimental physiology laboratory of John Scott Burdon-Sanderson at Oxford. In 1890 he went to Germany to study experimental psychology in Wilhelm Wundt’s laboratory in Leipzig. Titchener received his Ph.D. there in 1892. He later received his M.A. and Sc.D. from Oxford because of his scholarly publications....

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Watson, Goodwin Barbour (09 July 1899–30 December 1976), educator and social psychologist, was born in Whitewater, Wisconsin, the son of Walter Starr Watson, a biology professor, and Ellen Daisy Goodwin, a teacher. As a youth, Watson’s academic achievements and sober conduct exemplified the Social Gospel of his parents’ devout Methodism. Graduating from the Whitewater Normal School, by nineteen he had been both an elementary school principal and junior high school vice principal. During World War I he enlisted in the navy and was sent to the University of Wisconsin, where he remained after the armistice. After hearing Sherwood Eddy lecture on building a Christian society, Watson decided to devote himself to “teaching, preaching and engineering,” as he recorded in his diary. He majored in physics, was ordained as a deacon, and devoted his commencement oration (B.A., 1920) to the need for Christian character development....