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Allen, William Henry (25 March 1808–29 August 1882), educator and college president, was born at Readfield (now Manchester), near Augusta, Maine, to Jonathan Allen and Thankful Longley, farmers. He went from his parents’ farm to district school, then attended Wesleyan Seminary in Maine in preparation for Bowdoin College. He graduated with an M.A. from Bowdoin in 1833. The same year Allen was appointed to teach Latin and Greek at the Oneida Methodist Conference Seminary in Cazenovia, Madison County, New York. In the spring of 1836 he became principal of the high school in Augusta, Maine, a post he held for six months....

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Barr, Stringfellow (15 January 1897–03 February 1982), college president, professor, and innovator in higher education, was born in Suffolk, Virginia, the son of William Alexander Barr, an Episcopal clergyman, and Ida Stringfellow. He started his undergraduate studies at Tulane in 1912 then transferred in 1914 to the University of Virginia from which he received the B.A. (1916) and M.A. (1917), both in history. During World War I he served with the U.S. Army Ambulance Service (1917) and the Surgeon General’s Office (1918). After being discharged from the service, Barr studied at Oxford University as a Rhodes scholar from 1919 to 1921 and was awarded the B.A. and M.A. in modern history. In 1921 he married Gladys Baldwin; they had no children. He received the diplôme from the University of Paris in 1922; and he undertook additional studies at the University of Ghent, Belgium, where he won a fellowship in history, in 1922–1923....

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Battle, Kemp Plummer (19 December 1831–04 February 1919), educator and college president, was born in Franklin County, North Carolina, the son of William Horn Battle, a judge, and Lucy Martin Plummer. His father served on the Superior Court of North Carolina, riding a circuit during much of Battle’s early years. His mother was the chief formative influence on Battle; her wise counsel to him was, “Kemp, never be beaten if you can help it!” Battle began school in Louisburg in Franklin County. When he was eight years old, the family moved to Raleigh, and he continued schooling at the Raleigh Male Academy. The family moved to Chapel Hill in 1843, where he studied at the village school in preparation for entering the university. In September 1845, prior to his fourteenth birthday, Battle entered the University of North Carolina. He graduated in 1849 at age seventeen as one of the top students in the class, delivering the valedictory address at the commencement as his father had done in 1820....

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Baugher, Henry Lewis (19 July 1804–14 April 1868), college professor and president, was born in Abbottstown, Pennsylvania, the son of John Frederick Baugher, a prosperous tanner and farmer, and Anna Catharine Matter. For almost forty years his grandfather, John George Bager, was one of the pioneer German Lutheran pastors west of the Susquehanna River in Pennsylvania. After graduating from Dickinson College as salutatorian in 1826, Baugher studied at the Princeton Theological Seminary (1826–1828) and then at the recently established Lutheran Theological Seminary at Gettysburg (1828–1829). Licensed to preach in the latter year, he then became pastor of four congregations in the Boonsboro, Maryland, Lutheran parish. In 1829 he married Clara (or Clarissa) Mary Brooks; they had seven children....

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Bond, Horace Mann (08 November 1904–21 December 1972), college professor and administrator, was born in Nashville, Tennessee, the son of James Bond, a Congregationalist minister, and Jane Alice Browne, a graduate of Oberlin College and a schoolteacher. Horace Bond’s paternal grandmother, Jane Arthur Bond, was a slave who raised two sons by herself. These two sons, Horace’s father and his uncle Henry, both earned college degrees and embarked on professional careers. Three of Horace’s four siblings earned college degrees, and his cousins on his father’s side also distinguished themselves academically. This family achievement was important to Horace Bond because it exemplified the way in which numerous scholars of his generation were nurtured within the African-American community. He published a book on the family origins of African-American scholars near the end of his life, ...

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Briggs, LeBaron Russell (11 December 1855–24 April 1934), educator, was born in Salem, Massachusetts, the son of George Ware Briggs, a minister, and his second wife, Lycia Jane Russell. In 1867 George Briggs accepted a position at Cambridge as minister of the Third Congregational Society, in large part so that his sons might eventually attend his alma mater, Harvard College. In 1871, after attending Cambridge High School, LeBaron matriculated at Harvard College and graduated four years later, fourth in his class. As an undergraduate, he was most impressed by two professors, George Lane and ...

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Brown, Elmer Ellsworth (28 August 1861–03 November 1934), educator and university president, was born in Kiantone, Chautaugua County, New York, the son of Russell McCrary Brown and Electa Louisa Sherman, farmers. When Brown was very young his family moved to Sublette, Lee County, Illinois. They returned briefly to Kiantone while his father served in the Union army but settled in Sublette in 1864. Brown received his early education in local schools and in his early teens passed the county examination for a teacher’s certificate. A teaching position was subsequently denied him because of his youth. In 1878 he finally obtained a position in the field of education, as principal of the public school in Rockport, Illinois. After a year he left Rockport and taught at the high school in Astoria, Illinois, before enrolling in the Illinois State Normal College (now Illinois State University) in Normal, Illinois. After graduating in 1881, he served as superintendent of schools in Belvidere, Illinois, until 1884. Brown’s brother Isaac Eddy Brown was secretary of the Illinois Young Men’s Christian Association, and in 1884 Brown began serving as his assistant. He remained in that position until 1887, when he enrolled as a freshman at the University of Michigan, earning a bachelor’s degree in 1889....

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Bulkley, John Williams (03 November 1802–19 June 1888), teacher, administrator, and educational reformer, was born in Fairfield, Connecticut. The identities of his parents are unknown. Bulkley’s father arranged for his son’s common school education with an eye to mechanical pursuits, but young Bulkley’s inclinations gravitated toward more intellectual endeavors. About 1820 he moved to Clinton, New York, to prepare himself for Hamilton College. Focusing on the study of mathematics and the classics, he hoped to enter Hamilton as a sophomore. His health failed, however, and he was compelled to disrupt his educational ambitions and embark on a recuperative sea voyage. Bulkley never did return to college, but he had the satisfaction in 1853 of receiving an honorary master of arts from his intended alma mater....

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Butler, Nicholas Murray (02 April 1862–07 December 1947), educator, politician, and president of Columbia University, was the son of Henry Leny Butler, an importer and textile manufacturer, and Mary Jones Murray. From early childhood Butler was an enthusiastic, self-motivated student. He attended public high School in Paterson, New Jersey, graduating at age thirteen after passing a series of rigorous examinations. He continued his education privately from age fourteen to seventeen, learning Latin and Greek and doing further work in mathematics....

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Calkins, Norman Allison (09 September 1822–22 December 1895), educator, administrator, and author, was born in Gainesville, New York, the son of Elisha Deming Calkins, a pioneer settler and farmer, and Abigail Lockwood. From four years of age, Calkins attended the local schools, later also attending a classical academy....

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Camm, John (21 June 1718–22 May 1779), Anglican clergyman, professor, and college president, was born in Hornsea, Yorkshire, England, the son of Thomas Camm, and Ann (or Anna) Atkinson. He received a B.A. at Trinity College, Cambridge, and may also have held an M.A. and a D.D. He arrived in the colony of Virginia in 1745 to fill the post of rector of Newport Parish, Isle of Wight County. Within four years, he was appointed to one of two professorships of divinity at the College of William and Mary, first appearing in the faculty minutes on 18 September, 1749. He also became rector of Yorkhampton Parish, whose church stood in Yorktown, some twelve miles distant from Williamsburg, the seat of the college and of the government of the colony....

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Caswell, Hollis Leland (22 October 1901–22 November 1988), professor and college president, was born in Woodruff, Kansas, the son of Hollis Caswell, a postmaster, and Lotta Hood. Caswell was raised in McDonald, a small town in northwest Kansas, where his father worked as a rural mail carrier and later as postmaster. After completing high school in 1918, Caswell spent the next two years at the Kansas State College in Fort Hayes. He then transferred to the University of Nebraska at Lincoln, where he graduated in 1922 with a bachelor’s degree in English. During the next four years, Caswell held administrative positions in two rural Nebraska school systems, first as principal of the high school in Auburn and then as superintendent of schools in Syracuse....

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Church, Alonzo (09 April 1793–18 May 1862), schoolmaster, college teacher, and college president, was born in Brattleboro, Vermont, the son of Reuben Church and Elizabeth Whipple. He attended Middlebury College and was graduated in 1816. He then left Vermont for Georgia and first resided in Putnam County, where he was a schoolmaster. In 1817 he married Sarah J. Trippe while in Putnam County; they had eight children. His religious fervor as an educator earned him the attention of powerful Presbyterians at the University of Georgia, and he became a professor of mathematics at the university in 1819. A year later he was ordained in the Presbyterian Church. The combination of teacher-preacher was not uncommon among university faculty of this era....

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Cook, John Williston (20 April 1844–15 July 1922), educator and university administrator, was born in Oneida County, New York, the son of Henry DeWitt Cook and Joanna Hall. His family moved, when he was seven years old, to a McClean County, Illinois, farm. Two years later his father became a station agent for the Illinois Central Railroad, and the family took up residence in the village of Kappa. While attending Kappa’s one-room school, Cook continued to work on the farm, clerk at a store, and assist his father. In 1862 he entered the five-year-old Illinois State Normal University. Graduating three years later, he became principal of a small school in Brimfield, Illinois. He married Lydia Farnham Spofford in Rutland, Vermont, in 1867; they had two children....

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Day, Jeremiah (03 August 1773–22 August 1867), professor and college president, was born in New Preston, Connecticut, the son of the Reverend Jeremiah Day, a Congregational minister, and Abigail Osborn. He was prepared for college by private tutors and entered Yale in 1789. Pulmonary problems interrupted his college years and delayed his graduation until 1795. After graduation he served as principal of the academy founded by ...

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DeGarmo, Charles (17 January 1849–14 May 1934), college president and professor of education, was born in Muckwonago, Wisconsin, the son of Rufus DeGarmo and Laura Wilbur, farmers. His parents were members of the Society of Friends, as was DeGarmo throughout his life. In the Civil War, he served in the 149th Illinois Volunteers (1865–1866) but never saw battle. With the bounty that Illinois paid for his enlistment, he was able to buy prairie land, which he sowed to wheat. The yield brought him enough money to send him to Illinois State Normal University at Normal, Illinois, from which he graduated in 1873. After serving for a year as a school principal in Naples, Illinois (1873–1874), DeGarmo returned to the Illinois State Normal University, where from 1876 to 1883 he was head of the grammar department of the university’s model school. In 1875 he married Ida Witbeck of Belvidere, Illinois; they had no children....

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Deutsch, Gotthard (31 January 1859–14 October 1921), Jewish scholar and college professor, was born Eliezer Deutsch in Kanitz (Province of Moravia), Austria, the son of Bernhard L. Deutsch, a merchant, and Elise Wiener. He always called himself Gotthard, an attempted translation into German of his Jewish given name. Deutsch entered Breslau Jewish Theological Seminary in October 1876. While attending seminary classes, he also enrolled in afternoon classes at the University of Breslau. At the seminary, he was influenced by the noted Jewish historian Heinrich Graetz. Matriculating in 1879 at the University of Vienna, two years later he received his Ph.D. in history. While attending the university, he enrolled in a Talmudic course taught by Isaac Hirsch Weiss at Beth Hammidrash. During his studies in Vienna, Deutsch drew inspiration and guidance from both Weiss and Adolf Jellinek, an authority in midrashic research. Shortly after his graduation, Deutsch received Semichah (ordination) from Rabbi Weiss....

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Dodds, Harold Willis (28 June 1889–25 October 1980), college president and professor, was born in Utica, Pennsylvania, the son of Samuel Dodds, a Presbyterian minister and professor of chemistry, physics, and Bible at Grove City College, and Alice Dunn. In 1909 Dodds graduated Phi Beta Kappa from Grove City College, then taught high school Latin and English for two years before taking graduate courses in politics at Princeton University and in social ethics and theology at Princeton Theological Seminary. After receiving an A.M. from Princeton University in 1914, he taught economics for two years at Purdue University; he earned his Ph.D. at the University of Pennsylvania in 1917. That year he married Margaret Murray; they had no children....

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Eliot, Charles William (20 March 1834–22 August 1926), educator and university president, was born in Boston, Massachusetts, the son of Samuel Eliot, Harvard University treasurer, and Mary Lyman. He was raised in a combination of rigorous schooling, first at a dame school (where instructors offered courses on subjects such as modern languages in their homes) and then at Boston Latin School, and the liberal religiosity of Unitarianism....

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Fairchild, George Thompson (06 October 1838–16 March 1901), college professor, administrator, and president, was born in the frontier community of Brownhelm, Ohio, the son of Grandison Fairchild and Nancy Harris, farmers. His parents were Puritans, and his father was one of the founders of Oberlin College. Because of poor health, Fairchild initially received private tuition at home. He later attended Oberlin, graduating with an A.B. in arts in 1862 and an A.M. in theology in 1865. He married Charlotte Pearl Halstead, a Hicksite Quaker and fellow Oberlin graduate, in 1863; they had five children....