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Bühler, Karl (27 May 1879–24 October 1963), psychologist and theorist of language, was born in Meckesheim, in the state of Baden, Germany. Both his parents, whose names are unknown, were of peasant stock; his father was a railway official. After attending school in Meckesheim and in nearby Tauberbischofsheim, he studied natural sciences and medicine at the University of Freiburg, receiving a medical degree in 1903 for research on the physiology of vision. After further study at the University of Strasbourg, he earned a doctorate in philosophy in 1904. Accounts of the following months differ. Some sources state that Bühler worked briefly as a ship’s physician; others say that he studied under psychologists Carl Stumpf in Berlin and Benno Erdmann in Bonn....

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Roback, A. A. (19 June 1890–05 June 1965), psychologist, educator, and linguist, was born Abraham Aaron Roback in Goniondz, in what is now Poland, the son of Isaac Roback, a tailor, and Leba (maiden name unknown). He was raised in Montreal, Canada, from the age of two. Roback developed an early interest in comparative linguistics, mastering French, Greek, and Latin by the time he was thirteen years old and soon adding German, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Arabic. He attended McGill University, where he earned an A.B. with honors in 1912, winning the Prince of Wales Medal for exceptional scholarship. He received an M.A. from Harvard University in 1913 for a thesis specializing in psychology, having been denied the opportunity to do interdisciplinary work by his professors. Roback spent a year at Princeton as a Traveling Fellow in 1916–1917. He received a Ph.D. from Harvard in 1917; he wrote his dissertation, ...