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Mather, Samuel (07 July 1851–19 October 1931), industrialist and philanthropist, was born in Cleveland, Ohio, the son of Georgiana Pomeroy Woolson and Samuel Livingston Mather, a financier and founder of mining companies. Mather attended public schools in Cleveland and took college-preparatory classes at St. Mark’s School in Southboro, Massachusetts. He had planned to enter Harvard University in the fall of 1869 but was badly injured in an explosion that occurred on 14 July 1869 at the Cleveland Iron and Mining Company in Ishpeming, Michigan, which his father owned and where he was working for the summer. Mather convalesced for two years—much of that time as an invalid—and then embarked on a lengthy trip through Europe. In the fall of 1873 he returned to Cleveland Iron and Mining, where over the following eight years he learned the iron-mining business. In 1881 he married Flora Amelia Stone, with whom he would have four children....


Pew, John Howard (27 January 1882–27 November 1971), businessman, was born in Bradford, Pennsylvania, the son of Joseph Newton Pew, the founder of Sun Oil Company, and Mary Catherine Anderson. He attended Grove City College from 1896 to 1900 and then took graduate courses at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Pew joined the Sun Oil Company in 1901, fifteen years after its founding, and was initially named development engineer at the Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania, refinery. He was quickly promoted to assistant supervisor and then to supervisor of the engineering section....


John D. Rockefeller Photograph by Arnold Genthe, 1918. Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-G4085- 0398 P&P).


Rockefeller, John D. (08 July 1839–23 May 1937), industrialist and philanthropist, was born John Davison Rockefeller in Richford, New York, the son of William Avery Rockefeller and Eliza Davison. The family moved several times during his youth: to Moravia in 1843, to Owego in 1850, and to Ohio in 1853, settling in Strongsville, then in Parma in 1855, and finally in Cleveland. His father, an itinerant businessman, dealt in horses, lumber, salt, patent medicines, and herbal remedies and often lent money at profitable rates of interest. He gave his son practical training in business, but the father’s frequent, long absences burdened young Rockefeller with larger responsibilities within the family and helped foster a close relationship with his mother, a devout Baptist whose emphasis on proper moral conduct, discipline, thrift, and hard work would remain with her son....