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Kohler, Max James (22 May 1871–24 July 1934), jurist, historian, and Jewish communal worker, was born in Detroit, Michigan, the son of Kaufmann Kohler and Johanna Einhorn. His parents were Jewish immigrants from Germany, and both his father and grandfather, David Einhorn, were leading rabbis of the Reform Movement in American Judaism. Upon the death of Kohler’s grandfather in 1879, his father assumed Einhorn’s pulpit at New York’s Congregation Beth El, and the family moved to that city. There he grew up in an atmosphere infused with a devotion to both religious values and scholarly pursuits. After completing high school, Kohler attended the College of the City of New York, where he won several important literary prizes. Following his graduation in 1890, he entered Columbia University, from which he received both M.A. (1891) and LL.B. (1893) degrees. He was admitted to the New York State bar in 1893 and became an assistant U.S. attorney for the Southern District of New York, resigning after four years to start a private law practice. In 1906 he married Winifred Lichtenauer, who died in 1922. No children resulted from the marriage....

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Roberts, Peter (26 August 1859–02 December 1932), minister, sociologist, and educator, was born in Dowlais, South Wales, Great Britain, the son of John Roberts and Elizabeth Davis Roberts. Information about his early life is extremely limited. According to one source, Roberts worked as a coal miner and as a blacksmith's apprentice in his youth. He went to school at Glangadog, South Wales, and received his B.A. at Brecon Memorial College, Wales, in 1883. In the same year, Roberts immigrated to the United States, where he attended Yale University. Graduating with a bachelor of divinity degree in 1886, he delivered the commencement address....

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Sloan, Thomas Louis (14 May 1863–10 September 1940), Omaha tribal member, attorney, and Indian activist, was born to a mixed-race father, William E. Sloan, and a non-Indian mother, name unknown, in St. Louis, Missouri. At a young age he was orphaned and went to live with his paternal grandmother, Margaret Sloan, on the Omaha Indian Reservation in Nebraska. Margaret was the daughter of Michael Barada, a non-Indian man, and Taeglaha Haciendo, a woman of the Omaha tribe, making Thomas one-eighth Omaha. Reservation officials considered him a troublemaker and jailed him after he accused agents of cheating the tribe financially. He was later sent to the Hampton Institute in Virginia in 1886, where Captain Richard Henry Pratt had started the Indian boarding school system in 1878. Sloan excelled at Hampton and graduated as valedictorian in 1889. He decided not to attend Yale law school after graduation and returned to the Omaha Reservation....

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Speranza, Gino Carlo (23 April 1872–12 July 1927), immigration lawyer and author, was born in Bridgeport, Connecticut, the son of Carlo Leonardo Speranza, a professor of Italian literature at Yale and Columbia Universities, and Adele Capetti. His parents were both natives of Verona, Italy, and the family returned there frequently. Speranza received part of his early education in Verona as well as in the public schools of New York City. He then studied at City College of New York, receiving a B.S. (1892) and an M.S. degree (1895). Speranza took legal training at New York University Law School, earning an LL.B. in 1894 and joining the New York and federal bars in 1895. In 1909 he married Florence Colgate, a Barnard College graduate (1895) and settlement house activist. They did not have children....

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Stoddard, Lothrop (29 June 1883–01 May 1950), political philosopher and nativist advocate, was born Theodore Lothrop Stoddard in Brookline, Massachusetts, the son of John Lawson Stoddard, a lecturer and writer, and Mary Hammond Brown. Stoddard grew up in Massachusetts. His parents separated in 1888; his mother raised him, but Stoddard’s father sustained a close relationship, including extensive travel both domestic and abroad. Stoddard graduated magna cum laude from Harvard College in 1905; he then studied law at Boston University until his admission to the Massachusetts bar in 1908. That year he traveled extensively in Europe, a trip that greatly impressed him with the burgeoning complexity and difficulties of European politics at the turn of the century. He became convinced of both the imminence of a massive European war and the naiveté of American political leadership. On his return to the United States he enrolled in Harvard, studying political science and earning the Master of Arts in 1910 and the Doctor of Philosophy in 1914....

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Yellowtail, Robert Summers (1889–18 June 1988), Crow Indian politician, activist, and Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) official, was born near Lodge Grass, Montana on the Crow Indian Reservation to Yellowtail, a Crow Indian, and Elizabeth Frazee Chienne, of mixed Crow and French-Canadian descent. The exact date of his birth is unknown, but 1889 is widely regarded as the correct year. His parents were both enrolled members of the Crow tribe; his father belonging to the Big Lodge clan and his mother a member of the Whistling Waters clan (which became Robert Yellowtail’s clan, based on Crow matrilineal kinship). Born at a time when the Crows were experiencing extreme pressure to acculturate to white society, Robert was sent to a reservation boarding school and later attended Sherman Institute, a government-operated off-reservation boarding school in Riverside, California. Despite his early immersion in the white world, Robert followed precepts of Crow kinship norms and culture. Intelligent and outgoing he worked in the office of a local justice of the peace in California after graduating from Sherman Institute in 1907. Hoping to attend law school he returned to Montana around 1910 and became a stockman on the Crow Reservation....