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Amory, Cleveland (02 September 1917–14 October 1998), writer and animal rights advocate, was born in Nahant, Massachusetts, the son of Robert Amory, a textile manufacturer, and his wife, Leonore Cobb Amory. Both parents were descendants of long-established upper-class families in Boston, where Cleveland grew up in a privileged household. He was educated at private schools, including Milton Academy, and enrolled at Harvard in 1935. After graduating four years later, he worked briefly as a reporter for the ...

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Cleveland Amory Standing next to a display case containing a variety of chess sets, 1962. Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-USZ62-112709).

Article

Bergh, Henry (29 August 1811?–12 March 1888), animal welfare reformer, was born in New York City, the son of Christian Bergh, a shipbuilder and real estate investor, and Elizabeth Ivers. He attended schools in New York City and Columbia College but left before graduating. The next five years he spent touring Europe and developing his interest in literature and writing plays. Upon his return to the United States in 1836 he married Catherine Matilda Taylor, the daughter of wealthy English parents residing in New York City. After their father’s retirement, Henry and his brother ran their father’s shipbuilding business. When their father died in 1843, the brothers sold the business and divided the proceeds. Henry Bergh was now free to devote his life to literary pursuits and to the protection of animals....

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Caras, Roger (24 May 1928–18 February 2001), animal rights activist, Hollywood executive, and naturalist, was born in Methuen, a rural Massachusetts town around thirty miles north of Boston, the son of Jacob Caras, an insurance salesman, and Bessie Caras, an accountant. His affection for animals developed at an early age. At home he was exposed to dogs, cats, and canaries, and in the woods surrounding his house were raccoons, deer, opossums, and skunks. "Methuen was a wonderful place in which to learn and to explore," he recalled in his autobiography, ...

Article

Spira, Henry (19 June 1927–12 September 1998), animal rights activist, was born in Antwerp, Belgium, the son of Maurice Spira and Margit Spitzer Spira. In the late 1930s the family migrated to the United States, after making interim stops in Germany, England, and Panama, and settled in New York. Spira left home as a teenager and served in the merchant marine and the army before becoming an assembly-line worker at a General Motors factory in New Jersey....