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Deinard, Ephraim (11 May 1846–24 June 1930), Hebrew author, bibliographer, and bookdealer, was born in Shossmaken, Courland, Russia, the son of Jekuthiel Gerson Deinard and Leah Cohen. In addition to attending traditional schools of Jewish learning, he also studied secular subjects with private tutors. By age eighteen he was contributing articles on current issues to the Hebrew weekly ...

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Etting, Solomon (28 July 1764–06 August 1847), Jewish merchant and Baltimore civic leader, was born in York, Pennsylvania; he was the second oldest of the eight children of Elijah Etting, a Frankfurt merchant who came to York in 1758, and Shinah Solomon of Lancaster, Pennsylvania. As a boy, Solomon acquired business skills, working in the family store. After Elijah Etting, who was an Indian trader, died in July of 1778, Solomon did not go to Baltimore with his mother and his sisters. Along with his brother Reuben, he stayed in York, evidently to protect and preserve the family's business interests. Solomon in 1782 also became an authorized slaughterer of kosher meats ( ...

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Gratz, Barnard (1738?–20 April 1801), and Michael Gratz (1740?–08 September 1811), Jewish colonial and revolutionary merchants, were born in Langensdorf, Upper Silesia, the sons of Solomon Gratz, a moderately successful dry goods merchant. (Their mother’s name has not been recorded.) Barnard attended school before his parents died in the late 1740s; he went in 1750 to London to work in the export and import business of his cousin Solomon Henry. While in London Barnard continued to study Hebrew, learned English, mathematics, and geography, and, of more importance, acquired business knowledge and skills. While working in Henry’s business, he bought and sold sugar, tea, lumber, and textiles. The business opportunities in America and the close connections between Solomon Henry and ...

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See Gratz, Barnard

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Hays, Moses Michael (09 March 1739–09 May 1805), Jewish merchant and Masonic leader, was born in New York City, the oldest of the eight children of Judah Hays, a Dutch merchant who had come to that city in 1733, and Rebecca Michaels Hays, the daughter of New York merchant Moses Michaels. Judah Hays, who became a freeman in 1735 and was naturalized in 1740, took his son Moses Michael into his prospering export and import business during the late 1750s. The young Moses acquired business skills from his father, for Judah purchased and sold food supplies and guns to the British during the French and Indian War and accrued profits from transporting such goods on his ship, the ...

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Mosessohn, David Nehemiah (01 January 1883–16 December 1930), dress industry arbitrator and editor, was born in Ekaterinoslav, Russia, the son of Nehemiah Mosessohn, a rabbi and publisher, and Theresa Nissenson. Mosessohn came from a long line of rabbis, and his grandfather had once been chief rabbi of Odessa. In 1888 the entire family emigrated to the United States, and David grew up in Portland, Oregon, where he graduated from high school in 1900. He attended the University of Oregon and received his law degree from that university in 1902. That same year his father also received his law degree, and they were the youngest and the oldest graduates in 1902. Between 1902 and 1918 Mosessohn engaged in a general law practice while a senior member of Mosessohn and Mosessohn. Between 1908 and 1910 he served as deputy district attorney of Multnomah County. Together with his brother Moses Dayann Mosessohn, Mosessohn also served as publisher of the weekly ...

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Phillips, Jonas (1736–29 January 1803), merchant and Jewish civil rights leader, was born Jonas Phaibush in Buseck, Germany, the son of Phila Stein Phaibush and Aaron Phaibush (other spellings of this name found in the biographical literature include Faibush and Feibush), a clothing merchant. There is little known about the early life of Jonas in Buseck, a Rhenish village then under the dominion of Prussia. In 1756 he traveled to England, where he assumed an English surname, Phillips, which he retained thereafter. In November of that year, he sailed on the ship ...

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Rice, Abraham Joseph (1802–29 October 1862), rabbi and businessman, was born in Gochsheim, Bavaria, Germany, the son of Meir Rice. His mother’s name is unknown. Abraham Rice received an intensive Jewish education, studying under the guidance of Rabbi Abraham Bing at the Würzburg yeshiva and with Rabbi Wolf Hamburger in Furth. After obtaining rabbinical ordination from Rabbi Bing, Rice served as a Talmud instructor in Zell, Germany....