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Albright, Horace Marden (06 January 1890–28 March 1987), park service director, was born in Bishop, California, the son of George Albright, a mining engineer, and Mary Marden. He graduated from the University of California at Berkeley in 1912 with a B.A. in economics. While a law student at Berkeley, Albright worked as a reader for Professor Adolph C. Miller. In 1913, when Secretary of the Interior ...

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Alexander, Will Winton (15 July 1884–13 January 1956), leading southern liberal, expert on race relations, and member of Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal administration, leading southern liberal, expert on race relations, and member of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal administration, was born near Morrisville, Missouri, the son of William Baxter Alexander, a farmer, and Arabella A. Winton, a schoolteacher. Alexander received a B.A. from Scarritt-Morrisville College in 1908 and continued his studies at Vanderbilt University, where he received a Bachelor of Divinity in 1912. Ordained a Methodist minister in 1911, Alexander held pastorates at Nashville (1911–1916) and Murfreesboro, Tennessee (1916–1917). In 1914 he married Mabelle A. Kinkead; they had three sons....

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William O. Douglas. Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-USZ62-103906).

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Douglas, William O. (16 October 1898–19 January 1980), U.S. Supreme Court justice, New Deal administrator, and environmentalist, was born William Orville Douglas in Maine, Minnesota, near the North Dakota border, the son of Julia Fisk and William Douglas, a Presbyterian minister. The family moved to southern California in 1901 and then to eastern Washington, near Yakima, a year later....

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Gabrielson, Ira Noel (27 September 1889–07 September 1977), wildlife biologist and first director of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, was born in Sioux Rapids, Iowa, the son of Frank August Gabrielson, a partner in a hardware store and later a farmer, and Ida Jansen. During a boyhood spent hunting, fishing, and exploring the countryside, Gabrielson developed a love of nature, photographed and studied birds, and became particularly interested in waterfowl. He graduated from Morningside College, Sioux City, Iowa, with a B.A. in biology in 1912 and spent the next three years teaching high school biology in Marshalltown, Iowa. Just as he was about to enter the University of Iowa on a graduate fellowship, he was offered and accepted a position he had coveted with the Bureau of Biological Survey....

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Roche, Josephine Aspinwall (02 December 1886–29 July 1976), social worker and New Deal administrator, was born in Neligh, Nebraska, the daughter of John J. Roche, a lawyer, banker, and mining executive, and Ella Aspinwall, a former teacher. Roche spent her childhood in Nebraska, where her father was a member of the state legislature. While Roche was at Vassar College, where she earned a B.A. in 1908, her parents moved to Denver, Colorado, which remained her hometown for much of the rest of her life. After working for a short while as a probation officer there, she returned east....

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Ximenes, Vicente Trevino (05 December 1919–27 February 2014), civil rights activist and government official, was the fifth of eight children born to José Jesus Ximenes and Herlinda Treviño y Ximenes in Floresville, Texas. José Ximenes, a graduate of Draughon’s Business College of San Antonio, was a prominent local figure who owned a mercantile, served as a court interpreter, and played an active role in Floresville political life. Both parents maintained a strong commitment to education. Herlinda Ximenes taught her children to read and write in both English and Spanish to help them advance academically in the substandard segregated Texas public school system. The Ximenes family was distinguished for having five children complete college degrees....

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Yellowley, Edward Clements (12 August 1873–08 February 1962), federal Prohibition and Internal Revenue administrator, was born on a plantation near Ridgeland, Mississippi, the son of James Brownlow Yellowley, a lawyer and planter, and Jessie Perkins. His parents belonged to the antebellum plantation aristocracy and were financially devastated by the Civil War. The family moved to a plantation near Greenville, North Carolina, during his childhood. Best known as E. C., Yellowley attended a military academy in 1888 and subsequently operated his father’s plantation. He married Mary Helms about 1896; she died childless two years later....

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Yellowtail, Robert Summers (1889–18 June 1988), Crow Indian politician, activist, and Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) official, was born near Lodge Grass, Montana on the Crow Indian Reservation to Yellowtail, a Crow Indian, and Elizabeth Frazee Chienne, of mixed Crow and French-Canadian descent. The exact date of his birth is unknown, but 1889 is widely regarded as the correct year. His parents were both enrolled members of the Crow tribe; his father belonging to the Big Lodge clan and his mother a member of the Whistling Waters clan (which became Robert Yellowtail’s clan, based on Crow matrilineal kinship). Born at a time when the Crows were experiencing extreme pressure to acculturate to white society, Robert was sent to a reservation boarding school and later attended Sherman Institute, a government-operated off-reservation boarding school in Riverside, California. Despite his early immersion in the white world, Robert followed precepts of Crow kinship norms and culture. Intelligent and outgoing he worked in the office of a local justice of the peace in California after graduating from Sherman Institute in 1907. Hoping to attend law school he returned to Montana around 1910 and became a stockman on the Crow Reservation....