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Ballou, Adin (23 April 1803–05 August 1890), Universalist clergyman, reformer, and founder of Hopedale Community, was born in Cumberland, Rhode Island, the son of Ariel Ballou and Edilda Tower, farmers. A largely self-educated preacher, Ballou’s earliest religious experience was Calvinist in nature, and he later recalled the “very solemnizing effect” of the preaching he heard as a youth. At about age eleven, however, Ballou experienced a religious conversion, and a year later he was baptized into a Christian Connection church that emphasized a more enthusiastic and fundamentalist religiosity. Ballou developed a deep interest in religious matters over the next several years and eventually became a self-proclaimed preacher. At age eighteen, in the autumn of 1821, he was received into the fellowship of the Connecticut Christian Conference, a Christian Connection body. In 1822 he married Abigail Sayles; they had two children before Abigail died in 1829....

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Bartholdt, Richard (02 November 1855–19 March 1932), congressman and newspaper editor, was born in Schleiz, Thuringia, Germany, the son of Gottlob Bartholdt, a liberal forty-eighter (i.e., a supporter of the liberal revolutions in the German states in 1848), and Carolina Louise Wagner. Following early education in the Schleiz Gymnasium, he immigrated in 1872 to Brooklyn, New York, and gained U.S. citizenship. He returned to Germany to study law in 1877–1878. He worked as a typesetter and printer (Brooklyn, Philadelphia, and St. Louis), reporter for the ...

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Edward W. Bok. In the background are, from left to right, Senators George H. Moses, James Reed, and T. H. Caraway. Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-USZ62-103937).

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Bok, Edward William (09 October 1863–09 January 1930), editor, philanthropist, and peace advocate, was born in den Helder, Holland, the son of William John Hidde Bok and Sieke Gertrude van Herwerden, who, having lost their inherited fortune through unwise investments, immigrated to the United States in 1870. They settled in Brooklyn, where Bok and his older brother learned English in public school. With his father at first unable to find steady employment, Bok delivered newspapers, worked in a bakery, and wrote up childrens’ parties for the ...

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Brooke, Abraham (1806–08 March 1867), physician and radical reformer, was born at Sandy Spring, Maryland, the son of Samuel Brooke and Sarah Garrigues, farmers. The Brooke family had been leading Quakers in Maryland for several generations, and Abraham attended Quaker schools at Sandy Spring before entering medical college in Baltimore. In 1829 he married Elizabeth Lukens, a fellow Quaker from Sandy Spring; they had three children. When the Hicksite-Orthodox schism took place among Quakers, the Brookes, like most Maryland Friends, sided with the Hicksite group....

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Ralph Bunche Photograph by Carl Van Vechten, 1951. Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-USZ62-109113).

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Bunche, Ralph Johnson (07 August 1904–09 December 1971), scholar and diplomat, was born in Detroit, Michigan, the son of Fred Bunch, a barber, and Olive Agnes Johnson. His grandmother added an “e” to the family’s last name following a move to Los Angeles, California. Because his family moved frequently, Bunche attended a number of public schools before graduating first in his class from Jefferson High School in Los Angeles in 1922. He majored in political science at the University of California, Southern Branch (now University of California at Los Angeles or UCLA). He graduated summa cum laude and served as class valedictorian in 1927. He continued his studies in political science at Harvard, receiving his M.A. in 1928, then taught at Howard University in Washington, D.C., while working toward his Ph.D. at Harvard. In 1930 he married Ruth Ethel Harris; they had three children. Bunche traveled to Europe and Africa researching his dissertation and received his Ph.D. from Harvard in February 1934....

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Burritt, Elihu (08 December 1810–06 March 1879), reformer, was born in New Britain, Connecticut, the son of Elihu Burritt, a farmer and cobbler, and Elizabeth Hinsdale. Burritt’s mother made the Bible and the religion of John Calvin the basis of the Christian nurture of her ten children. Elihu attended the local district school and showed a marked aptitude for scholarship. After his father’s death in 1827, he apprenticed himself to a local blacksmith and independently continued his studies, particularly in languages....

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Cadbury, Henry Joel (01 December 1883–07 October 1974), New Testament scholar and pacifist, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of Joel Cadbury, Jr., a partner in a successful plumbing business, and Anna Kaighn Lowry. The Cadburys were members of a large transatlantic Quaker family, and Henry Cadbury grew up attending Quaker schools. In 1899 he graduated from Penn Charter, in 1903 from Haverford College, and 1904 from Harvard University with a master’s degree in Greek....

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Clark, Grenville (05 November 1882–13 January 1967), attorney and world government advocate, was born in New York City, the son of Louis Crawford Clark, a wealthy banker, and Marian de Forest Cannon. He attended Pomfret School and then entered Harvard College, where he joined the exclusive Porcellian Club and graduated Phi Beta Kappa in 1903. Three years later, after earning a Harvard law degree, he joined the distinguished New York City law firm of Carter, Ledyard and Milburn, becoming friends with a young fellow clerk, ...

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Cornell, Julien Davies (17 March 1910–02 December 1994), civil liberties attorney and pacifist, was born in Brooklyn, New York, the son of Edward H. Cornell, a successful Wall Street attorney, and Esther Haviland Cornell, heir to the famous Haviland chinaware fortune. Julien, along with his brother and two sisters, attended the Brooklyn Friends School on Schermerhorn Street. Reared as a member of the Society of Friends (Quakers), he recounted that an important part of his childhood was attending meetings: "On Sundays … during the meeting … we had to turn the pages quietly so as not to disturb worshippers. … [S]ome of the speakers' messages appealed to us, particularly those of Anna Curtis, who had a great stock of interesting stories" (Cornell, ...

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Cousins, Norman (24 June 1915–30 November 1990), author, editor, and peace advocate, was born in Union Hill, New Jersey, the son of Samuel Cousins and Sara Miller, owners of a dry goods store. Soon after his birth the family moved to New York City. In his youth Cousins excelled in English composition and was a fine baseball player. After graduating from Columbia University Teachers College in 1933, he secured an editorial position as an education writer for the ...

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Dahlberg, Edwin Theodore (27 December 1892–06 September 1986), pastor, was born in Fergus Falls, Minnesota, the son of Elof Dahlberg and Christine Ring, farmers. The youngest of four children, Dahlberg was raised on a Swedish Baptist farm until age ten, when the family moved to Minneapolis. He was baptized in the Olivet Baptist Church (now University Baptist Church) and graduated in 1914 from the University of Minnesota, where Rutledge Thornton Wiltbank, pastor of the Olivet Baptist Church and psychology professor at the university, inspired him to enter the ministry....

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DeBenedetti, Charles Louis (27 January 1943–27 January 1987), historian, was born in Chicago, Illinois, the son of Louis Albert DeBenedetti, a bread delivery truck driver, and Clementine Caroline Diero DeBenedetti, a legal secretary. “Chuck,” as DeBenedetti liked to be called, attended Mendal Catholic High School and graduated in 1960. Reared in a strong Italian-Catholic family, DeBenedetti applied to and was accepted at the Jesuit-run Loyola University in Chicago, from which he graduated in 1964. On 29 August 1964 he married Sandra Kisala from Chicago. They had two children. DeBenedetti then enrolled in the graduate history program at the University of Illinois. In 1968 he was awarded his Ph.D. His dissertation, “American Internationalism in the 1920's: Shotwell and the Outlawrists,” supervised by ...

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Dodge, David Low (14 June 1774–23 April 1852), merchant and peace reformer, was born in Brooklyn, Connecticut, the son of David Dodge and Mary Stuart (widow of the late William Earl), farmers. Dodge was raised in a strict Calvinist family and remained involved in religious matters all his life. He spent much of his formative years working on the farm. He received a limited common school education. Although he was largely self-taught, Dodge became a schoolteacher at age nineteen. He taught school for several years, first at community schools and then in private ventures....

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Eichelberger, Clark Mell (29 July 1896–26 January 1980), advocate and professional promoter of the League of Nations and the United Nations, was born in Freeport, Illinois, the son of Joseph Elmer Eichelberger, a businessman, and Olive Clark. He matriculated at Northwestern University in 1914 and was a student there when the United States entered World War I. Leaving Northwestern in 1917 to enlist in the U.S. Army, he found most soldiers “sick of war,” and he emerged from the army in 1919 a strong advocate of the League of Nations as proposed by President ...

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Fincke, William M. (01 January 1878–31 May 1927), pacifist minister and educator, was born William Mann Fincke in New York City, the son of William H. Fincke, a wealthy businessman, and Julia Murrid Clark Fincke. In 1897 he graduated from the Hill School and in the fall entered Yale University, “where he played halfback on the varsity eleven” ( ...

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Firth, Roderick (30 January 1917–22 December 1987), philosopher and educator, was born in Orange, New Jersey, the son of Leo Earl Firth, who was in the advertising business, and Ida Lake. Firth attended primary and secondary schools in New Jersey and spent summers boarding at Mountain Farm in Cobbleskill, New York. In 1934 he graduated from Newark Academy and in the same year entered Haverford College....

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J. William Fulbright. Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-USZ62-100599).

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Fulbright, J. William (09 April 1905–09 February 1995), educator, U.S. senator, and Vietnam-era dissenter, was born James William Fulbright in Sumner, Missouri, the son of Jay Fulbright, a banker, and Roberta Waugh. When he was three years of age, the family moved to Fayetteville, Arkansas. In the years that followed Jay Fulbright became one of the community’s leading bankers, while Roberta Fulbright attended to family affairs and built a network of friends centering on the University of Arkansas. Her parlor became a salon that included economists, historians, literary critics, local lawyers, physicians, and politicians. “Bill” Fulbright enjoyed a secure if somewhat sheltered childhood amid the foothills of the Ozark Mountains. He attended the University of Arkansas from the time he enrolled in the experimental kindergarten run by the College of Education until his graduation with a bachelor of arts degree in 1924. His father died suddenly in 1923, and his mother took over management of the family businesses....