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Parham, Charles Fox (04 June 1873–29 January 1929), evangelist and Pentecostal theologian, was born near Muscatine, Iowa, the son of Ann Maria Eckel and William M. Parham, farmers. In 1878 the family moved to more prosperous fields in Cheney, Kansas, but Charles was afflicted with poor health: probably encephalitis in childhood and definitely rheumatic fever that recurred intermittently throughout his lifetime. In a reversal of the usual sequence, he felt called to preach before he had a conversion experience. While studying at Southwest Kansas College (1890–1893) he reaffirmed his commitment to preaching, finally leaving school to become a Methodist supply pastor before completing his degree. By 1895 Parham refused to accept the ecclesiastical supervision common to Methodist bishops and launched an independent ministry. The following year he married Sarah Eleanor Thistlethwaite; the couple had six children....

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Riley, William Bell (22 March 1861–05 December 1947), Baptist preacher and fundamentalist leader, was born in Greene County, Indiana, the son of Branson Radish Riley, a farmer, and Ruth Anna Jackson. Riley’s father was a proslavery Democrat, and he took his family to Kentucky soon after the start of the Civil War. Riley grew up in Boone and Owen Counties....

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Barton W. Stone. Clockwise from far right: Stone, Alexander Campbell, Walter Scott, and Thomas Campbell. Engraving by John Chester Buttre, from Pioneers in the Great Religious Reformation of the Nineteenth Century, 1885. Courtesy of the Library of Congress (Card no. 98508288).

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Stone, Barton Warren (24 December 1772–09 November 1844), evangelist, educator, and speculative theologian, was born near Port Tobacco, Maryland, the son of John Stone and Mary Warren, farmers. Reared in Pittsylvania County, Virginia, he moved in 1790 to North Carolina to study law at Guilford Academy. His career plans changed when he was converted to an aggressive form of evangelical Protestantism under the influence of ...