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Deutsch, Helene Rosenbach (09 October 1884–29 March 1982), psychoanalyst and psychiatrist, was born in Przemyśl, Poland, the daughter of Wilhelm Rosenbach, a lawyer, and Regina Fass. Her parents were Jewish, but she grew up a Polish nationalist. As early as 1898 she became romantically involved with a much older man, Herman Lieberman, who was a Social Democratic leader. Lieberman was married, however, and a divorce in those days was politically out of the question; nonetheless, their affair lasted for years. Although formal schooling was impossible in Poland for a woman, tutoring enabled her to enroll at the University of Vienna in 1907. From the outset she was interested in a psychiatric career....

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Dunbar, Helen Flanders (14 May 1902–21 August 1959), psychiatrist, psychoanalyst, and pioneer in psychosomatic medicine, was born in Chicago, Illinois, the daughter of Francis William Dunbar, a mathematician and patent attorney, and Edith Vaughan Flanders, a genealogist. She attended a series of private, largely experimental schools, graduating from Bryn Mawr College in 1923....

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Fromm-Reichmann, Frieda (23 October 1889–28 April 1957), psychoanalyst and psychiatrist, was born in Karlsruhe, Germany, the daughter of Adolf Reichmann, a merchant and banker, and Klara Simon, a teacher. Believing that young women should be educated and able to support themselves, Klara Reichmann directed the education of her daughters in the arts and sciences and encouraged their professional training. Frieda Reichmann entered the medical school at Albertus University in Könisberg, Germany, in 1908, receiving her medical degree in 1913....

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Greenacre, Phyllis (03 May 1894–24 October 1989), psychiatrist, psychoanalyst, and author, was born in Chicago, Illinois, the daughter of Isaiah Thomas Greenacre and Emma Leantha Russell. Although she planned to work in the field of psychiatry from an early age, she received her first special training in general pathology. She earned her S.B. from the University of Chicago in 1913 and her M.D. from Rush Medical College in 1916....

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Hilgard, Josephine Rohrs (12 March 1906–16 May 1989), psychologist and psychiatrist, was born in Napoleon, Ohio, the daughter of Henry F. Rohrs, a practicing physician and surgeon, and Edna Irene Balsley. Her subsequent education after high school led to an A.B., magna cum laude, from Smith College (1928); an M.A. (1930) and a Ph.D. (1933) from Yale University in child psychology; and an M.D. from Stanford University Medical School (1940). This education was followed by psychoanalytic training at the Chicago Psychoanalytic Institute in Washington, D.C., and at the Washington-Baltimore Psychoanalytic Institute, completed in 1946. Each of her academic degrees led to honor society membership: Smith, Phi Beta Kappa; Yale, Sigma Xi; Stanford, Alpha Omega Alpha....

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Kenworthy, Marion Edwena (17 August 1891–26 June 1980), psychiatrist and educator, was born in Hampden, Massachusetts, the daughter of John Kenworthy, a textile manufacturer, and Ida Miller, a teacher. Kenworthy’s determination to become a doctor grew out of the emotional impact of her mother’s long-term illness and death when Marion was nine years old. As no preliminary undergraduate degree was required for application to medical school, Kenworthy entered Tufts University School of Medicine at age seventeen. Of the 144 students in her class, twelve were women. By the end of the first year, only seven women remained. She graduated cum laude in 1913....

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Kübler-Ross, Elisabeth (08 July 1926–24 August 2004), psychiatrist and writer on death and dying, was born in Zurich, Switzerland, to Ernst Kübler, a business executive, and Emmy Villiger Kübler. The eldest of triplet sisters, she also had an older brother. The household was conservative and rigorously Protestant, and the children were raised to be self-disciplined and obedient. Elisabeth had a sickly childhood, and frequent hospitalizations, as well as exposure to dying friends and neighbors, gave her an early acquaintance with mortality, a fact she later cited to explain the inception of her professional interest in death....

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Levine, Lena (17 May 1903–09 January 1965), gynecologist, psychiatrist, and pioneer of the birth control movement, was born in Brooklyn, New York, the daughter of Morris H. Levine, a clothing manufacturer, and Sophie Levine. Her parents, Jewish émigrés from Russia, had come to the United States in the 1890s. Her father’s business did well enough that the family lived relatively comfortably compared to their neighbors. Levine received a bachelor’s degree from Hunter College in 1923, and then went on to earn her M.D. from University and Bellevue Hospital Medical College in 1927. Two years later she married Louis Ferber, another medical student, but decided to retain her maiden name. They both did their residencies at Brooklyn Jewish Hospital....

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Nyswander, Marie (13 March 1919–20 April 1986), psychiatrist and developer of methadone maintenance, was born Mary Elizabeth Nyswander in Reno, Nevada, the daughter of James Nyswander, a mathematics professor, and Dorothy Bird Nyswander. In her teens she began calling herself Marie, the name she also used in her published work and by which she became professionally known. When Marie was two-and-a-half, her father divorced her mother. Dorothy Bird Nyswander took Marie to California and taught high school while completing doctoral work in psychology at the University of California at Berkeley. In 1926 Marie’s mother moved to Salt Lake City to teach at the University of Utah, then in 1936 moved to New York City to begin a four-year research project on public school health services....

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Thompson, Clara (03 October 1893–20 December 1958), psychiatrist, was born Clara Mabel Thompson in Providence, Rhode Island, the daughter of Thomas Franklin Thompson, a self-made businessman who eventually became president of a drug company, and Clara Medbury Thompson. The prosperous Thompson household, in a rural area outside Providence, also included both sets of grandparents as well as an assortment of aunts and uncles. By all accounts, the elder Clara Thompson was a strong-willed woman, and she decreed that her only daughter—the couple also had a younger son, named after his father—be called by her middle name. The younger Clara was therefore known as Mabel until she reached adulthood and could use her given name exclusively....