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Hyde, Ida Henrietta (08 September 1857–22 August 1945), physiologist, was born in Davenport, Iowa, the daughter of Meyer H. Hyde, a merchant, and Babette Loewenthal. Her father had changed his surname from Heidenheimer when he settled in the United States from Württemberg, Germany. He left the family when Ida was very young. The mother and children moved to Chicago, where Babette Hyde did mending and cleaning. Ida attended public schools and began work in a millinery in Chicago in 1873 when she was sixteen. She advanced to buyer and sales clerk. When she found and enjoyed reading a book by Alexander von Humboldt, Hyde decided to pursue her education. She took evening classes at the newly established Chicago Athenaeum, a school for working people....

Article

Macklin, Madge Thurlow (06 February 1893–14 March 1962), medical scientist, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the daughter of William Harrison Thurlow, a stationery engineer, and Margaret De Grofft. She received an A.B., Phi Beta Kappa, in 1914, at Goucher College, Baltimore.

In the summer of 1914 Macklin first demonstrated her passion for social justice by volunteering to address the public on street corners and at open-air meetings in and around Baltimore on behalf of woman suffrage. That experience of recognizing social injustice motivated her to become a physician, in which capacity she felt she could be more effective....

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Yalow, Rosalyn (19 July 1921–30 May 2011), medical physicist, was born Rosalyn Sussman in the Bronx, New York. Her mother, Clara (née Zipper), was born in Germany; her father, Simon Sussman, a wholesaler of packaging materials, moved his family from the Lower East Side of Manhattan to the Bronx, where his daughter stayed for most of her life. In girlhood Rosalyn contributed to the family wage by cutting out patterns for her uncle’s necktie business. Although neither of her parents went to college, she had ambitions to pursue a career in science. She learned to read before kindergarten, and when there were no books in the house, she checked them out of the public library. She attended Walton High School before entering Hunter College of the City University of New York. At Hunter, she saw guest lecturer Enrico Fermi speak on radioisotopes and urged administrators to inaugurate a physics major. The year was 1939; by January 1941 she had become the first student to complete the nascent physics program, graduating magna cum laude at the age of nineteen....