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Grace Abbott Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-USZ62-111723).

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Julie Longo and Sandra F. VanBurkleo

Abbott, Grace (17 November 1878–19 June 1939), social worker and administrator, was born in Grand Island, Nebraska, the daughter of Othman Ali Abbott, a lawyer and politician, and Elizabeth Griffin, a high school principal. The Abbott household provided an intellectually stimulating environment, emphasizing reading, discussion, and formal education for all four children. Othman Abbott encouraged both Grace and her older sister ...

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Bremer, Edith Terry (09 October 1885–12 September 1964), social worker and reformer, was born in Hamilton, New York, the daughter of Benjamin Stiles Terry, a history professor at Colgate University and a Baptist minister, and Mary Baldwin, the daughter of a Baptist minister. The family moved west in 1892 when Benjamin Terry became a professor at the University of Chicago. Edith spent most of her youth in Chicago and received her A.B. from the University of Chicago in 1907. The following year, she furthered her education by attending the Chicago School of Civics and Philanthropy....

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Garvey, Amy Ashwood (18 January 1897–03 May 1969), Pan-African activist and feminist, was born in Port Antonio, Jamaica, one of three children of Michael Delbert Ashwood and Maudriana Thompson. She was raised in Panama, where her father ran a restaurant and worked as a printer. Supported by her family in her desire for education, she returned to Jamaica to attend a high school for girls. It was as a teenager in Kingston that she became the close associate of the young ...

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Frances Kellor Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-USZ62-99077).

Article

Kellor, Frances Alice (20 October 1873–04 January 1952), social reformer and arbitration specialist, was born in Columbus, Ohio, the daughter of Daniel Kellor and Mary Sprau. The family relocated to Coldwater, Michigan, in 1875. Engaging in the same housekeeping work as her mother, Frances Kellor paid for high school. However, after two years, she left school to become a reporter for the ...