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Bryant, Louise Frances Stevens (19 September 1885–29 August 1959), social statistician and medical editor, was born in Paris, France, the daughter of Charles E. Stevens, a civil engineer, and Miriam Collins Nicholson. She spent her first three years touring Europe with her mother and sister while her father led government-sponsored prospecting operations in South America. In 1888 he died, leaving a sizable inheritance, and they settled in New York City. The inheritance dissipated in unfortunate investments, and in 1910 she moved with her family to Rahway, New Jersey. After attending Hunter College and the Normal College of the City of New York for a year, she matriculated in 1904 at Smith College, where she studied philosophy and zoology and received her B.A. in 1908. Later that year she married Arthur A. Bryant; they had no children....

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Cox, Gertrude Mary (13 January 1900–17 October 1978), statistician, was born near Dayton, Iowa, the daughter of John William Allen Cox and Emmaline Maddy, farmers. After graduating from high school in 1918, she spent the next seven years in social work, including a stint as housemother at a Montana orphanage. Hoping that a college degree would help her become superintendent of the orphanage, in 1925 she matriculated at Iowa State College. She received her B.S. in mathematics in 1929 and, in 1931, the first M.S. granted by the college in statistics. From 1931 to 1933 she studied psychological statistics at the University of California at Berkeley....

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See Friedman, William Frederic

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Geiringer, Hilda (28 September 1893–22 March 1973), mathematician, was born in Vienna, Austria, the daughter of Ludwig Geiringer, a textile manufacturer, and Martha Wertheimer. She studied pure mathematics at the University of Vienna with Wilhelm Wirtinger and received her doctorate in 1917. Her thesis dealt with double trigonometric series....

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Lax, Anneli (23 February 1922–24 September 1999), mathematician and educator, was born Anneli Cahn in Kattowitz, then in Germany but soon part of Poland following a plebiscite, the daughter of Alfred Cahn, a Jewish urological surgeon, and Margarete Kramer. In 1929, to escape discrimination against Germans, the family moved to Berlin. It was a move from the frying pan into the fire; in 1933 Adolf Hitler came to power, and the Cahn family fled, first to Paris, where Anneli learned French. Love of the French language stayed with her the rest of her life. Unable to settle permanently in France, the family moved to Palestine and in 1935 to the United States....

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James J. Tattersall and Shawnee L. McMurran

Maddison, Isabel (13 April 1869–22 October 1950), mathematician and administrator, was born in Cumberland, England, the daughter of John Maddison, a civil servant, and Mary Anderson. Maddison studied for four years at the University College of South Wales and Monmouthshire in Cardiff under Principal Viriamu Jones and Professor H. W. Lloyd Tanner. In 1889 she matriculated at Girton College, Cambridge, with a scholarship from the Clothworkers’ Guild....

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Orshansky, Mollie (9 Jan. 1915–18 Dec. 2006), civil servant, economist and statistician, was born in the Bronx, New York City, the sixth daughter of Samuel Orshansky and Fannie Orshansky, recent Jewish immigrants from the Ukraine. Samuel worked at various occupations (tinworker, ironworker, plumber, repairman), eventually becoming the proprietor of a small neighborhood grocery store. Mollie was born in poverty and grew up understanding how families coped with inadequate incomes. In her South Bronx neighborhood few young women went even as far as high school, going directly into the labor force as soon as possible. Mollie was the first member of her family to attend high school. She graduated Hunter College High School in ...

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Robinson, Julia (08 December 1919–30 July 1985), mathematician, was born Julia Bowman in St. Louis, Missouri, the daughter of Ralph Bowers Bowman, a machine tool and equipment businessman, and Helen Hall. She grew up in Arizona and California and graduated from San Diego High School in 1936. She then entered San Diego State College (later San Diego State University), where she studied for three years with the intention of receiving a teaching certificate in mathematics. During this time she developed a greater interest in mathematics, and she transferred to the University of California at Berkeley for her senior year. She received an A.B. in 1940 and an M.A. in 1941 from Berkeley. On 22 December 1941 she married Raphael Mitchel Robinson, then an assistant professor at Berkeley. Possessing similar mathematical interests, they had a very happy marriage; however, nepotism rules in effect for most of her working lifetime made it impossible for her to obtain a regular position at Berkeley for many years....

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Scott, Charlotte Angas (08 June 1858–08 November 1931), mathematician and educator, was born in Lincoln, England, the daughter of Caleb Scott and Eliza Ann Exley. Her father was pastor of the Congregational church in Lincoln and served as principal of the Lancashire Independent College (now the Congregational College) near Manchester. When Scott was a child, mathematical and logical games formed part of her home entertainment. Both gifted and diligent, she was privately tutored at home....

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Taussky-Todd, Olga (30 August 1906–07 October 1995), mathematician, was born in Olmütz in the Austro-Hungarian empire (now Olomouc, Czech Republic), the daughter of Julius David Taussky, an industrial chemist, and Ida Pollach. She received her early schooling in Vienna and finished her Gymnasium studies in Linz, where her mathematical talents were recognized. Her father died in the final year of these studies, and it was with great difficulty that she entered the University of Vienna in 1925 as a chemistry student. There her teachers included the philosopher Moritz Schlick and the mathematicians Hans Hahn and Karl Menger. She also participated in the seminars of the Wiener Kreis, an association of philosophers and mathematicians that frequently discussed the work of Ludwig Wittgenstein, where one of her fellow students and friends was ...

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Wheeler, Anna Johnson Pell (05 May 1883–26 March 1966), mathematician, was born in Hawarden, Iowa, the daughter of Andrew Gustav Johnson and Amelia Friberg. Her parents were Swedish immigrants; Johnson’s father, initially a farmer, worked later as a furniture dealer and undertaker in Akron, Iowa. Johnson obtained an A.B. degree from the University of South Dakota in 1903. There her talent for mathematics was recognized by one of her professors, Alexander Pell. Pell, a former Russian revolutionary whose real name was Sergei Degaev, encouraged her to pursue a mathematical career. She received A.M. degrees from the University of Iowa (1904) and from Radcliffe College (1905). Winning an Alice Freeman Palmer Fellowship from Wellesley College, she went to Göttingen University to study during 1906–1907. While at Göttingen, the lectures of David Hilbert, one of the driving forces in twentieth-century mathematics, turned her interest toward integral equations....

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Wrinch, Dorothy Maud (12 September 1894–11 February 1976), mathematician and biochemical theorist, was born in Rosario, Argentina, the daughter of Hugh Edward Hart Wrinch, an engineer, and Ada Souter. Her parents were British subjects who returned to London, England, during her adolescence.

In 1913 Dorothy Wrinch entered Cambridge University’s Girton College, where she excelled in mathematics and philosophy. While at Girton she met and became friendly with the philosopher Bertrand Russell, whose work in mathematical logic had a profound effect on her career. After receiving her B.A. in 1917, she remained at Girton as a research scholar for a year. From 1918 to 1920 she taught mathematics at the University of London’s University College, where she also studied and earned her M.Sc. and D.Sc. in mathematics in 1920 and 1921, respectively. She returned to Girton in 1920 to accept a research fellowship. In 1922 she married John William Nicholson, the newly appointed director of studies in mathematics and physics at Oxford University’s Balliol College, and the next year she became affiliated with Oxford as both a teacher and student. For four years she taught mathematics on a per-term basis at its five women’s colleges, and in 1927 she was made a lecturer at Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford. She continued her studies in mathematics and received another M.Sc. in 1924, and in 1929, the first D.Sc. ever awarded by Oxford to a woman....