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Friend, Charlotte (11 March 1921–07 January 1987), immunologist and cell biologist, was born in New York City, the daughter of Russian-Jewish immigrants Morris Friend, a businessman, and Cecelia Wolpin, a pharmacist. Friend’s father died when she was three years old, and her mother was left with four young children to raise during the depression. Friend took advantage of the many free cultural and educational advantages that New York offered and developed a wide-ranging, lifelong interest in art, music, and science. Following graduation from Hunter College of the City of New York in 1944, she enlisted in the U.S. Navy and served as an officer in hematology laboratories in California and Florida. When World War II ended, she enrolled as a graduate student at Yale University with the financial assistance of the G.I. Bill. She received her Ph.D. in bacteriology in 1950....

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Stevens, Nettie Maria (07 July 1861–04 May 1912), cytologist, was born in Cavendish, Vermont, the daughter of Ephraim Stevens, a carpenter, and Julia Adams. Stevens’s mother died in 1863, and her father remarried two years later. She was educated in the public schools of Westford, Massachusetts, and graduated from the Westfield, Massachusetts, Normal School in 1883. To earn money to continue her education, Stevens taught Latin, English, mathematics, physiology, and zoology at a high school in Lebanon, New Hampshire; worked as a librarian at the Chelmsford, Massachusetts, Free Public Library; and taught at the Howe School, Billerica, Massachusetts....