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Clapp, Cornelia Maria (17 March 1849–31 December 1934), zoologist, educator, and biologist, was born in Montague, Massachusetts, the daughter of Richard C. Clapp, a teacher and farmer, and Eunice Amelia Slate. Her parents ensured that she had an excellent education in the public and private schools of her home town, which had been home to several generations of her ancestors. A lifelong learner, Clapp summarized her eclectic academic career: “I was all bent on one thing, then another … first an entomologist, then a conchologist and then a fish woman.”...

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Harvey, Ethel Nicholson Browne (14 December 1885–02 September 1965), biologist, was born in Baltimore, Maryland, the daughter of Jennie R. Nicholson and Bennet Bernard Browne, an obstetrician-gynecologist and founder of the Woman’s Medical College of Baltimore. After attending the Bryn Mawr School (1895–1902), Ethel earned an A.B. in 1906 from the Women’s College of Baltimore (later Goucher College), where she majored in both Latin and biology. Immediately following college graduation, Ethel spent the first of many summers at the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) in Woods Hole, Massachusetts. She began graduate study in biology at Columbia University, from which she received an M.A. in 1907 and a Ph.D. in 1913 for work done under the direction of ...

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Scharrer, Berta Vogel (01 December 1906–23 July 1995), cell biologist and pioneering neuroendocrinologist, was born Berta Vogel in Munich, Germany, the daughter of Karl Phillip Vogel, a prominent judge in the Bavarian state court, and Johanna Weiss. Berta grew up in happy circumstances at home and in school, and she showed an early interest in biology and in becoming a scientist. But after 1914 her life was shadowed by World War I, by Germany's defeat and economic chaos, and ultimately by the rise of Nazism, which gained an early foothold in Munich. Scharrer entered the University of Munich in the swale of Adolf Hitler's conspiracy to overthrow of the Bavarian government, and she graduated with a Ph.D. in 1930, as the Nazis came to national prominence....