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Bibring, Grete Lehner (11 January 1899–10 August 1977), psychoanalyst, was born in Vienna, Austria, the daughter of Moritz Lehner, a businessman, and Victoria Stengel. She attended the Humanistic Gymnasium for Girls, where she became fluent in Greek and Latin. She first learned of the work of Sigmund Freud at age sixteen in a psychology class at the Gymnasium. On the way home from school that day she purchased two of his books....

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Deutsch, Helene Rosenbach (09 October 1884–29 March 1982), psychoanalyst and psychiatrist, was born in Przemyśl, Poland, the daughter of Wilhelm Rosenbach, a lawyer, and Regina Fass. Her parents were Jewish, but she grew up a Polish nationalist. As early as 1898 she became romantically involved with a much older man, Herman Lieberman, who was a Social Democratic leader. Lieberman was married, however, and a divorce in those days was politically out of the question; nonetheless, their affair lasted for years. Although formal schooling was impossible in Poland for a woman, tutoring enabled her to enroll at the University of Vienna in 1907. From the outset she was interested in a psychiatric career....

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Dunbar, Helen Flanders (14 May 1902–21 August 1959), psychiatrist, psychoanalyst, and pioneer in psychosomatic medicine, was born in Chicago, Illinois, the daughter of Francis William Dunbar, a mathematician and patent attorney, and Edith Vaughan Flanders, a genealogist. She attended a series of private, largely experimental schools, graduating from Bryn Mawr College in 1923....

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Fromm-Reichmann, Frieda (23 October 1889–28 April 1957), psychoanalyst and psychiatrist, was born in Karlsruhe, Germany, the daughter of Adolf Reichmann, a merchant and banker, and Klara Simon, a teacher. Believing that young women should be educated and able to support themselves, Klara Reichmann directed the education of her daughters in the arts and sciences and encouraged their professional training. Frieda Reichmann entered the medical school at Albertus University in Könisberg, Germany, in 1908, receiving her medical degree in 1913....

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Greenacre, Phyllis (03 May 1894–24 October 1989), psychiatrist, psychoanalyst, and author, was born in Chicago, Illinois, the daughter of Isaiah Thomas Greenacre and Emma Leantha Russell. Although she planned to work in the field of psychiatry from an early age, she received her first special training in general pathology. She earned her S.B. from the University of Chicago in 1913 and her M.D. from Rush Medical College in 1916....

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Kate Wittenstein and Benjamin Harris

Hinkle, Beatrice Moses (10 October 1874–28 February 1953), psychoanalyst and feminist, was born in San Francisco, California, the daughter of Benjamin Frederick Moses, a physician, and Elizabeth Bechley Van Geisen. She was educated at home and in 1892 married Walter Scott Hinkle, an assistant district attorney. They had two children. Her desire to study law met with her husband’s derision, and she enrolled instead at Cooper Medical College, later part of Stanford University, where she received her M.D. in 1899. That same year her husband died, and Hinkle became the city physician of San Francisco, the first woman to hold such a public health post....

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Karen Theodora Clementina Danielsen Horney. Oil on canvas, c. 1940-1950, by Suzanne Carvallo Schulein. National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution.

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Horney, Karen Theodora Clementina Danielsen (15 September 1885–04 December 1952), psychoanalyst, was born near Hamburg, Germany, the daughter of Berndt Wackels Danielsen, a sea captain, and Clothilde Marie van Ronzelen. Among the first to benefit from the gradual opening of German education to women, Karen Danielsen entered a girls’ Gymnasium in Hamburg in the first year of its existence and embarked on medical studies at the University of Freiburg just six years after its doors opened to women. In 1909 she married Oskar Horney, a doctoral student she had met in Freiburg who was embarking on a career as an executive in the Stinnes Corporation in Berlin. In Berlin, Horney continued her medical studies in the field of psychiatry and obtained her medical degree in 1915. By that time she had become deeply engrossed in a new and little-known discipline called psychoanalysis, imported to Berlin by Karl Abraham, a follower of Sigmund Freud....

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Jackson, Edith Banfield (02 January 1895–05 June 1977), pediatrician and psychoanalyst, was born in Colorado Springs, Colorado, the daughter of William Sharpless Jackson, a railroad executive, mining entrepreneur and banker, and Helen Fiske Banfield, an 1879 graduate of Vassar College. Jackson graduated with Phi Beta Kappa honors from Vassar College in 1916 and from the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in 1921. She held an internship at University of Iowa Hospital in 1921–1922 and a pediatric internship at Bellevue Hospital in 1922–1923. After four years on a rickets research project at the Yale School of Medicine, Jackson began a residency in psychiatry at St. Elizabeth’s Hospital in Washington, D.C. in 1928. Between 1930 and 1936 she completed a training analysis with Sigmund Freud and participated in seminars at the Vienna Psychoanalytic Institute. Upon leaving Vienna, Jackson provided Anna Freud with the seed money to establish the world’s first day-care center for infants from impoverished families. The “Edith Jackson Krippe” became the prototype for the Hampstead Nurseries for refugee children that Anna Freud directed in England during World War II....

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Mahler, Margaret S. (10 May 1897–06 October 1985), physician and psychoanalyst, was born in Sopron, Hungary, the daughter of Gusztav Schonberger, a physician, and Eugenia Wiener. Her father, a prominent public health officer, encouraged her scientific aptitude and interests. She attended the medical schools of the universities of Budapest, Munich, and Jena, graduating in 1922, after which she practiced pediatrics and child psychoanalysis in Vienna. She married Paul Mahler in 1936 (they would have no children) and moved to New York City in 1938; there she became well known as a gifted clinician, teacher, and researcher....