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Beckwith, Martha Warren (19 January 1871–28 January 1959), educator, folklorist, and ethnographer, was born in Wellesley Heights, Massachusetts, the daughter of George Ely Beckwith and Harriet Winslowe Goodale, schoolteachers. Beckwith was the grandniece of Lucy Goodale Thurston, one of the first company of Congregational missionaries to the island of Hawaii, and Beckwith’s father had spent sixteen years in Hawaii before she was born, working as a missionary and a teacher, and then as manager of a sugar plantation. In 1874 the Beckwiths moved back to Hawaii. There Beckwith was introduced to the “cousins” society, a group formed by the descendants of the early missionaries, most of whom had intermarried, producing an intricate web of family relations. Beckwith was adopted immediately into the cousins society, through which she developed an interest in their history and in the legends and culture of early Hawaii....

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Eastman, Mary Henderson (1818–24 February 1887), writer, was born in Warrenton, Virginia, the daughter of Thomas Henderson, a physician, and Anna Maria Truxton. Although scholars are uncertain exactly when the Henderson family moved from Virginia to Washington, D.C., it was probably in Washington that Eastman received her education, an excellent one for a girl growing up in the early nineteenth century....

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Jaramillo, Cleofas Martínez (06 December 1878–30 November 1956), folklorist, writer, and businesswoman, was born in the northern New Mexican village of Arroyo Hondo, the daughter of Julian Antonio Martínez, a landholder who raised sheep and cattle, farmed, and engaged in the mercantile trade, and Marina Lucero de Martínez. Both parents were descended from Spanish pioneers who settled the territory for New Spain in the late sixteenth century. One of seven children, Jaramillo spent her early years amidst the pleasures and hard work of a prosperous, upper-class, large country household. At age nine she entered the Loretto Convent School in Taos, New Mexico, and later attended the Loretto Academy in Santa Fe. There she was courted by her cousin, Colonel Venceslao Jaramillo, whom she married in Taos in 1898. After a wedding trip to California, they settled in El Rito....

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Louise Pound. Courtesy of the Nebraska State Historical Society.

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Pound, Louise (30 June 1872–28 June 1958), folklorist, was born in Lincoln, Nebraska, the daughter of Stephen Bosworth Pound, an attorney, state senator, and district court judge, and Laura Biddlecombe, a former schoolteacher who studied German language and literature at the University of Nebraska and was also an avid botanist. Educated at home by her mother until 1886, Pound took undergraduate (1892) and master’s (1895) degrees at the University of Nebraska, where she coedited the literary magazine with ...

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Scarborough, Dorothy (27 January 1878–07 November 1935), novelist and folklorist, was born Emily Dorothy Scarborough near Flora, an extinct village near Mount Carmel, Texas, the daughter of John B. Scarborough and Mary Adelaide Ellison. Her father, a Confederate veteran, taught school while studying law. Becoming a successful lawyer and district judge, he moved the family west to Sweetwater before settling in Waco so that his children could receive good educations. He became a trustee of Baylor University, the leading Baptist school in the state....