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Caesar, Doris (11 November 1892–1971), sculptor and painter, was born Doris Porter in Brooklyn, New York, the daughter of Alfred Hayes Porter, a lawyer and later the president of Royal Baking Powder Co., and Lillian Dean. Her early childhood was typical of upper-middle class European-American children of the time until her mother died in 1903. Caesar grew closer to her father after her mother’s death, and their relationship was instrumental in developing her interest in art. In 1909 she was studying at the prestigious Spence Academy in the morning, then running off to study painting and drawing at the Art Students League in the afternoon. At the Art Students League she met with friends and talked about “painting, people and politics” (Goodrich and Baur, p. 25). She later described herself at sixteen years old as “practically a bohemian.” Her studies continued until late in 1913, when she met and married Harry Caesar. Doris Caesar spent the next twelve years in a fairly conventional lifestyle, giving birth to two children in 1914 and 1916 and devoting her time to her new family. At the onset of World War I Caesar was left to care for the household alone. If these domestic aspects of Caesar’s life were all-consuming at the time, they did not diminish her desire to pursue her artistic career....

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Cresson, Margaret French (03 August 1889–01 October 1973), sculptor, was born in Concord, Massachusetts, the daughter of the noted sculptor Daniel Chester French and his wife and first cousin, Mary Adams French. Cresson grew up in New York City, where her father had his studio, and in Stockbridge, Massachusetts, where the family spent its summers. She was educated at the Clarke Private School and the Brearley School in New York. She made her debut into society in the winter of 1909, and the next several years were largely given over to social activity; her father recalled that “the vanities of life seemed to be Margaret’s sole occupation.”...

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Dehner, Dorothy (23 December 1901–22 September 1994), sculptor, was born in Cleveland, Ohio, the daughter of Edward Pius Dehner, a pharmacist, and Louisa A. Uphof, a suffragist. Dehner spent her adolescence in Pasadena, California, and received instruction in painting and photography. At Pasadena High School she studied dance, music, and acting and performed in contemporary dramas with the Pasadena Playhouse. After one year at the University of California, Los Angeles, she moved to New York to pursue a career in theater. Dehner studied at the American Academy of Dramatic Arts and appeared in off-Broadway shows. She spent the bulk of 1925 traveling in Europe, predominantly in Italy but also in Switzerland and Paris, where she saw works by the cubists, the Fauves, and the German expressionists, among others....

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Eberle, Abastenia St. Leger (06 April 1878–26 February 1942), sculptor, was born in Webster City, Iowa, the daughter of Harry Adoniram Eberle, a physician, and Clara Vaughan McGinn. Although her first name was in fact Mary, she chose to identify herself by her middle names. Eberle grew up in Canton, Ohio, where her mother taught music and her father practiced medicine. After graduating from high school in 1895, she studied cello and considered a career as a professional musician. When Eberle made a clay mask at age seventeen, however, she became so interested in art that she took classes in modeling at the local YMCA. In 1899 her father became an army physician and her parents moved to Puerto Rico. Eberle relocated to New York City and enrolled at the Art Students League. There she received three years of instruction in modeling and drawing with C. Y. Harvey, ...

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Fraser, Laura Gardin (14 September 1889–13 August 1966), medalist and sculptor, was born in Chicago, Illinois, the daughter of John Emil Gardin, a bank executive, and Alice Tilton, a painter. She attended elementary school in Morton Park, Illinois, and spent the summers with her family in New Jersey, where Laura had her first horse. It was there that she developed the lifelong love of animals that shows in her sculpture. She also studied in Rye, New York, and graduated from Horace Mann High School in New York City in 1907. That same year she attended Columbia University briefly before entering the Art Students’ League, where she matriculated for four years. There she studied with ...

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Frishmuth, Harriet Whitney (17 September 1880–01 January 1980), sculptor, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the daughter of Frank Benoni Frishmuth, a physician, and Louise Otto Berens. At nineteen, after attending private schools in Paris, Dresden, and Philadelphia, Frishmuth, intent on becoming a returned to Paris and enrolled in the modeling classes of Auguste Rodin. Although her studies with him were brief, his attention to the surface quality of a figure caught in transitional movement left a lasting effect on her work. She later studied with Henri Gauquié and Jean Injalbert at the Académie Colorossi. After exhibiting in the Paris Salon of 1903, Frishmuth went to Berlin where she spent two years assisting Cuno von Euchtritz on several large commissions. She returned to the United States and took classes with Hermon MacNeil and ...

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Fry, Sherry Edmundson (29 September 1879–09 June 1966), sculptor, was born in Creston, Iowa, the son of John Wesley Fry and Ellen Green, farmers. He may have had early art training, for he placed directly into advanced classes at the Art Institute of Chicago. For the year 1900–1901 he studied sculpture with ...

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Fuller, Meta Vaux Warrick (09 June 1877–18 March 1968), sculptor, was born Meta Vaux Warrick in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to Emma Jones Warrick, a beautician, and William H. Warrick, who owned a barber shop. Her thriving black middle-class family provided her with educational and cultural opportunities often denied to African Americans of the era. In 1893 she gained admission to the Girls’ High School in Philadelphia, which offered regular academic courses as well as art classes, an area in which Meta excelled. After her graduation in 1896, she received a scholarship to attend the Pennsylvania Museum and School of Industrial Art (later the University of the Arts), studying a range of subject matter including freehand and mechanical drawing, color harmony, anatomy, applied design, sculpture, art history, and French....

Article

J. Susan Isaacs

Hesse, Eva (11 January 1936–29 May 1970), artist, was born in Hamburg, Germany, the daughter of Wilhelm Hesse, a criminal attorney, and Ruth Marcus. In 1938, to escape the Nazis, she and her sister, Helen, were sent on a children’s train to Amsterdam, where they were placed in a Catholic orphanage. In 1939 the family reunited and emigrated to New York City, where Hesse’s father became an insurance broker. Very soon thereafter her mother, probably depressed as a result of the war and subsequent relocation, was hospitalized. Her parents were divorced in 1945, and in 1946 her mother committed suicide, an event that shaped Hesse’s vision of herself and her art. Hesse attended therapy sessions most of her adult life, kept private diaries and datebooks, and wrote autobiographical letters to friends. Her desire for personal expression ultimately extended to the visual arts, initially painting but finally culminating in a significant body of sculptural work that alluded to, but did not illustrate, her emotional and physical anguish....

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Malvina Hoffman Photograph by Arnold Genthe. Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-G401-T-4456-003).

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Hoffman, Malvina (15 June 1885–10 July 1966), sculptor, was born Malvina Cornell Hoffman in New York City, the daughter of Richard Hoffman, a pianist, and Fidelia Marshall Lamson. Her early years were spent in a handsome brownstone on West 43d Street in New York City. Her father, born in England, was an internationally recognized pianist who first came to the United States as an accompanist to Jenny Lind, the Swedish soprano. Richard Hoffman’s home was filled with works of art and artists, inspiring his daughter’s interest in art....

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Harriet Hosmer. Engraving made from a photograph. Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-USZ62-115183).

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Hosmer, Harriet Goodhue (09 October 1830–21 February 1908), sculptor, was born in Watertown, Massachusetts, the daughter of Hiram Hosmer, a physician, and Sarah Grant. Sarah Hosmer died when her daughter was four years old. Hiram Hosmer raised Harriet, providing her with physical and intellectual training well beyond the limits imposed on most middle-class girls of the time. Hosmer grew up renowned in her community for fearlessness and unconventional behavior, especially in regard to outdoor sports involving riding and shooting....

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Anna Hyatt Huntington At work on The Torch Bearers. Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-USZ62-112006).

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Huntington, Anna Vaughn Hyatt (10 March 1876–04 October 1973), sculptor and philanthropist, was born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, the daughter of Alpheus Hyatt II, a professor of zoology and paleontology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and at Boston University, and Audella Beebe, an amateur landscape painter. She attended private schools in Cambridge, but at about age seventeen, she began to show an interest in sculpture. This was encouraged by her family, especially by her older sister, Harriet R. Hyatt, who began sculpting in the 1880s. Anna may have accompanied her sister to the Cowles School in Boston to study drawing with ...

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Nevelson, Louise (23 September 1899–17 April 1988), sculptor, was born Louise Berliawsky in Kiev, Russia, the daughter of Isaac Berliawsky, a contractor, and Minna Ziesel Smolerank. In 1902 her father immigrated to the United States, and three years later the Berliawsky family left Russia to join him in Rockland, Maine. Isaac Berliawsky owned a lumberyard and became a building contractor. Nevelson recalled that at age six she was assembling scraps of wood that she found in her father’s lumberyard. She attended elementary school and high school in Rockland. In 1918, shortly after her graduation from Rockland High School, she became engaged to Charles Nevelson, a wealthy shipowner from New York. They were married in 1920 and had one child. Nevelson moved to New York City after her marriage, and during the 1920s she studied painting and drawing there with Theresa Bernstein and William Meyerowitz. She also took drama classes and private voice instruction....

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Rideout, Alice Louise (? Oct. 1871–18 April 1953), painter and sculptor, was born in Marysville, California. Rideout’s exact birth date is still unknown, but, according to the San Francisco Chronicle, Rideout was born “two months more than twenty years ago” from its publication date of 6 December 1891. She was the daughter of Captain James Ransom Rideout and Alvira Jane Fish of Maine. From 1868 to 1870 her father was county treasurer, and he and one of her brothers, Ernest V. Rideout, ran a fleet of freight and passenger steamers that traveled the San Francisco Bay and up the Sacramento and Feather rivers to Sacramento....

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Martin R. Kalfatovic

Savage, Augusta (29 February 1892–27 March 1962), sculptor, was born Augusta Christine Fells in Green Cove Springs, near Jacksonville, Florida, the daughter of Edward Fells, a Methodist minister and laborer, and Cornelia Murphy. As a child, Fells molded small ducks and other animals from the local clay. Concerned that his daughter was “fashioning graven images,” her father “almost whipped all the art out of me” (quoted in Bearden and Henderson, p. 168)....

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Scudder, Janet (27 October 1873–09 June 1940), sculptor, was born Netta Deweze Frazee Scudder in Terre Haute, Indiana, the daughter of William Hollingshead Scudder, a confectioner, and his first wife, whose name is unknown. Her mother died when Scudder was about five years old, and she was raised by her stepmother, Mary Sparks. She began drawing as a child, encouraged in her delight in form and color by her grandmother. After a public school education and Saturday drawing classes at the Rose Polytechnic Institute in Terre Haute, Scudder was sent by her father to the Cincinnati Art Academy, where she studied anatomy, drawing, and modeling and simplified her name to “Janet Scudder.”...

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Twombly, Cy (25 April 1928–05 July 2011), artist and sculptor, was born Edwin Parker Twombly, Jr., in Lexington, Virginia, the younger child of Edwin Parker Twombly, Sr., and Mary Welma Richardson, New Englanders who had settled in the South. The family traveled frequently to his mother’s native Maine and his father’s native Massachusetts, though the worn neoclassicism of Lexington is often deemed foundational to Twombly’s aesthetic disposition. He assumed as a lifelong nickname the moniker by which his father was also known; Edwin, Sr., a beloved golf and swimming coach at Washington and Lee University, had spent one summer pitching for the Chicago White Sox and was called “Cy” after the famous pitcher ...