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Andrews, Eliza Frances (10 August 1840–21 January 1931), author and educator, was born at Haywood Plantation near Washington, Georgia, the daughter of Garnett Andrews, a judge and planter, and Annulet Ball. After attending the Ladies’ Seminary in Washington, Georgia, Andrews, often known as “Fanny,” was, in 1857, one of the first students to receive an A.B. degree at LaGrange Female College in LaGrange, Georgia....

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Bunting, Mary (10 July 1910–21 January 1998), college educator and microbiologist, was born in Brooklyn, New York, the eldest child of Henry Andrews Ingraham, a lawyer, and Mary Shotwell Ingraham, a community activist. Her well-educated parents were committed to bringing culture to their children, along with a love of the outdoors. Family life was close and satisfying for Polly (so called to avoid confusion with her mother), who appreciated her father’s interests in art and literature and her mother’s community commitments, including as a member of the New York City Board of Higher Education and the national president of the Young Women’s Christian Association....

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Anna Botsford Comstock. Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-USZ62-111455).

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Comstock, Anna Botsford (01 September 1854–24 August 1930), educator and scientific illustrator, was born in a log cabin in Cattaraugus County, New York, the daughter of Marvin Botsford and Phoebe Irish. The Botsfords were prosperous farmers who encouraged Anna in her love of art, literature, and natural history. Her mother, a Hicksite Quaker, shared her love of the natural world with her daughter. From 1871 to 1873 Anna attended the Chamberlain Institute and Female College in nearby Randolph, where she resisted attempts by its faculty to have all students “experience” religion, asserting the moderate beliefs she would retain throughout her life....

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Lax, Anneli (23 February 1922–24 September 1999), mathematician and educator, was born Anneli Cahn in Kattowitz, then in Germany but soon part of Poland following a plebiscite, the daughter of Alfred Cahn, a Jewish urological surgeon, and Margarete Kramer. In 1929, to escape discrimination against Germans, the family moved to Berlin. It was a move from the frying pan into the fire; in 1933 Adolf Hitler came to power, and the Cahn family fled, first to Paris, where Anneli learned French. Love of the French language stayed with her the rest of her life. Unable to settle permanently in France, the family moved to Palestine and in 1935 to the United States....

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James J. Tattersall and Shawnee L. McMurran

Maddison, Isabel (13 April 1869–22 October 1950), mathematician and administrator, was born in Cumberland, England, the daughter of John Maddison, a civil servant, and Mary Anderson. Maddison studied for four years at the University College of South Wales and Monmouthshire in Cardiff under Principal Viriamu Jones and Professor H. W. Lloyd Tanner. In 1889 she matriculated at Girton College, Cambridge, with a scholarship from the Clothworkers’ Guild....

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Maltby, Margaret Eliza (10 December 1860–03 May 1944), physicist, college professor, and administrator, was born on the family farm in Bristolville, Ohio, the daughter of Edmund Maltby and Lydia Jane Brockway. She graduated with a bachelor of arts degree from Oberlin College in Ohio in 1882 and spent the next year in New York City at the Art Students League. She then returned to Ohio and taught in high schools for four years....

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Maria Mitchell. Wood engraving, c. 1875. Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-USZ62-92881).

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Mitchell, Maria (01 August 1818–28 June 1889), astronomer and teacher, was born on Nantucket Island, Massachusetts, the daughter of William Mitchell, a banker and astronomer, and Lydia Coleman, a former librarian. Mitchell attended a school for young ladies conducted by the Reverend Cyrus Peirce...

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Phelps, Almira Hart Lincoln (15 July 1793–15 July 1884), science educator, was born in Berlin, Connecticut, the daughter of Samuel Hart and Lydia Hinsdale, farmers. Almira’s childhood was filled with her father’s stories of the revolutionary war, fireside readings of Milton’s poetry and Shakespeare’s plays, and lively political discussions in a Jeffersonian environment rare for Federalist New England. An early exposure to books at home and the admonitions of her sister Emma ( ...

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Stevenson, Matilda Coxe Evans (12 May 1849–24 June 1915), ethnologist, geologist, and explorer, was born in San Augustine, Texas, the daughter of Alexander Hamilton Evans, a lawyer, writer, and journalist from Virginia, and Maria Coxe of New Jersey. Stevenson grew up in a privileged, middle-class household in Washington, D.C. Following her education in a girl’s finishing school and seminary, she defied convention and studied law as well as served an apprenticeship in chemistry and geology at the Army Medical School. Even though there were no opportunities for college or advanced degrees or employment in the sciences for women at the time, Stevenson decided to become a mineralogist and geological explorer. She was able to pursue these goals through her marriage, in 1872, to geologist and naturalist Colonel ...