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Rand, Paul (15 August 1914–26 November 1996), graphic designer, was born Peretz Rosenbaum in Brooklyn, New York, to Itzhak Yehuda Rosenbaum, a Polish immigrant, and Leah Rosenbaum (maiden name is unknown). The family, which also included his twin brother, Fishel, and an older sister, were strict Orthodox Jews who made their home in the Brownsville section of Brooklyn, where the elder Rosenbaums ran a grocery store. Peretz and his twin were inseparable as children, attending both public school and yeshiva, and manifested independence from an early age, often venturing outside the neighborhood to explore the secular world and attempting to bend and break the rules of Jewish tradition. Peretz showed an artistic aptitude from the time he was a toddler, drawing and sketching whenever he could find pencil and paper. Newspaper cartoon strips, especially “Krazy Kat,” were an early influence, and much to his father's disapproval he became a devotee of comic books. As he grew older, he found himself confronting and rejecting the strictures of his religious tradition at every turn, beginning with his insistence on drawing human figures—a forbidden act in the eyes of Orthodox Jewry....

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Steinberg, Saul (15 June 1914–12 May 1999), graphic artist, was born in Râmincul-Sarat, Romania, the son of Moritz Steinberg, a printer and bookbinder, and Rosa Iacobson Steinberg. In later years, Steinberg recalled Romania as “a masquerade country.” The work of Steinberg's life was largely concerned with masks of reality and the reality of masks. The only difference between Americans and others, he noted, was that they wore their masks more lightly....