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James Markham Ambler. Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine (B01766).


Ambler, James Markham Marshall (30 December 1848–30 October 1881), naval surgeon and explorer, was born in Markham, Virginia, the son of Richard Cary Ambler, a physician, and Susan Marshall. At age sixteen Ambler became a volunteer in the Twelfth Virginia Cavalry. He studied a premedicine curriculum at Washington College in 1865–1867 and then entered the University of Maryland. After acquiring a medical degree in 1870, he practiced in Baltimore until his appointment as an assistant surgeon in the U.S. Navy. During 1874–1875, he was stationed in the North Atlantic. In 1877 he joined the staff of the Naval Hospital at Norfolk, Virginia....


Senn, Nicholas (31 October 1844–02 January 1908), surgeon and author, was born in Buchs, north-central Switzerland, the son of John Senn and Magdelena (maiden name unknown), farmers. The family came to the United States in 1852 and settled in Ashford, Fond du Lac County, Wisconsin. In 1864 Senn graduated from Fond du Lac High School. He then taught school for two years while he studied medicine and botany with a local doctor, Emanuel Munk. He grew up fluent in French and German, languages spoken in his home....